Archive | November, 2016

Signal Messaging App Formal Audit Results Are Good

The New Acunetix V12 Engine


I’ve recommended Signal Messaging App quite a few times and I do use it myself, I know there are some privacy concerns with the fact it requires Google App Store – but that’s the developers choice.

Signal Messaging App Formal Audit Results Are Good

It’s a pretty solid app, clean, sleek and works well across both Android and iOS and the latest news is, apparently it’s pretty secure too (which is good news).

Encrypted SMS and voice app Signal has passed a security audit with flying colours.

As explained in a paper titled A Formal Security Analysis of the Signal Messaging Protocol (PDF) from the International Association for Cryptologic Research, Signal has no discernible flaws and offers a well-designed and compromise-resistant architecture.

Signal uses a double rachet algorithm that employs ephemeral key exchanges continually during each session, minimising the amount of text that can be decrypted at any point should a key be compromised.

Signal was examined by a team of five researchers from the UK, Australia, and Canada, namely Oxford University information security Professor Cas Cremers and his PhDs Katriel Cohn-Gordon and Luke Garratt, Queensland University of Technology PhD Benjamin Dowling, and McMaster University Assistant Professor Douglas Stebila.

The team examines Signal threat models in the context of a fully adversarially-controlled network to examine how it stands up, proving that the cryptographic core of Signal is secure.


Now this is not 100% complete as it only really looks at the signal code base, not 3rd party libraries or integrations it uses (like Google Play Store).

But it is a good indicator that on a cryptographic level Signal is pretty solid and should at least be safe from nation state attacks.

As the authors write, Signal’s security is such that even testing it is hard:

Providing a security analysis for the Signal protocol is challenging for several reasons. First, Signal employs a novel and unstudied design, involving over ten different types of keys and a complex update process which leads to various chains of related keys. It therefore does not directly fit into existing analysis models. Second, some of its claimed properties have only recently been formalised. Finally, as a more mundane obstacle, the protocol is not substantially documented beyond its source code.

They conclude that it is impossible to say if Signal meets its goals, as there are none stated, but say their analysis proves it satisfies security standards adding “we have found no major flaws in its design, which is very encouraging”.

The team finds some room for improvement which they passed on to the app’s developers, namely that the protocol can be further strengthened with negligible cost by using “constructions in the spirit of the NAXOS (authenticated key exchange) protocol” [PDF]” by or including a static-static Diffie-Hellman shared secret in the key derivation. This would solve the risk of attackers compromising communications should the random number generator become fully predictable.

The paper does, however, cover only a subsection of Signal’s efforts, as it ignores non-Signal library components, plus application and implementation variations. It should therefore be considered a substantial starting point for future analysis, the authors say, rather than the final world on Signal.

You can read the full report here: A Formal Security Analysis of the Signal Messaging Protocol [PDF]

It’s a good app, and this makes it a little more trustworthy – some people do seem to have some issues with the developer, but the users on the whole are happy (high ratings in both app stores).

Source: The Register

Posted in: Countermeasures, Cryptography, Privacy

Topic: Countermeasures, Cryptography, Privacy


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Kautilya – Human Interface Device Hacking Toolkit

The New Acunetix V12 Engine


Kautilya is a human interface device hacking toolkit which provides various payloads for HIDs which may help with breaking into a computer during penetration tests.

Kautilya – Human Interface Device Hacking Toolkit

The Windows payloads and modules are written mostly in powershell (in combination with native commands) and are tested on Windows 7 and Windows 8. In principal Kautilya should work with any HID capable of acting as a keyboard. Kautilya has been tested on Teensy++ 2.0 and Teensy 3.0 from pjrc.com.

Payloads Available

Windows

  • Gather
    • Gather Information
    • Hashdump and Exfiltrate
    • Keylog and Exfiltrate
    • Sniffer
    • WLAN keys dump
    • Get Target Credentials
    • Dump LSA Secrets
    • Dump passwords in plain
    • Copy SAM
    • Dump Process Memory
    • Dump Windows Vault Credentials
  • Execute
    • Download and Execute
    • Connect to Hotspot and Execute code
    • Code Execution using Powershell
    • Code Execution using DNS TXT queries
    • Download and Execute PowerShell Script
    • Execute ShellCode
    • Reverse TCP Shell
  • Backdoor
    • Sethc and Utilman backdoor
    • Time based payload execution
    • HTTP backdoor
    • DNS TXT Backdoor
    • Wireless Rogue AP
    • Tracking Target Connectivity
    • Gupt Backdoor
  • Escalate
    • Remove Update
    • Forceful Browsing
  • Manage
    • Add an admin user
    • Change the default DNS server
    • Edit the hosts file
    • Add a user and Enable RDP
    • Add a user and Enable Telnet
    • Add a user and Enable Powershell Remoting
  • Drop Files
    • Drop a MS Word File
    • Drop a MS Excel File
    • Drop a CHM (Compiled HTML Help) file
    • Drop a Shortcut (.LNK) file
    • Drop a JAR file

Misc

  • Browse and Accept Java Signed Applet
  • Speak on Target

Linux

  • Download and Execute
  • Reverse Shells using built in tools
  • Code Execution
  • DNS TXT Code Execution
  • Perl reverse shell (MSF)

OSX

  • Download and Execute
  • DNS TXT Code Execution
  • Perl Reverse Shell (MSF)
  • Ruby Reverse Shell (MSF)

Usage

Run kautilya.rb and follow the menus. Kautilya asks for your inputs for various options. The generated payload is copied to the output directory of Kautilya.

The generated payload is an arduino sketch, ready to be used with Arduino IDE. Burn it to Human Interface Device of your choice and have fun!

You can download Kautilya here:

Kautilya-v0.5.5.zip

Or read more here.

Posted in: Hacking Tools, Hardware Hacking

Topic: Hacking Tools, Hardware Hacking


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Censys Search Engine – Public Host & Network Search

The New Acunetix V12 Engine


Censys Search Engine is a public host & network search tool that allows computer scientists to ask questions about the devices and networks that compose the Internet. Driven by Internet-wide scanning, it lets researchers find specific hosts with the networksearch and create aggregate reports on how devices, websites, and certificates are configured and deployed.

Censys Search Engine - Public Host & Network Search


Censys collects data on hosts and websites through daily ZMap and ZGrab scans of the IPv4 address space, in turn maintaining a database of how hosts and websites are configured. Researchers can interact with this data through a search interface, report builder, and SQL engine.

Features of Censys Search Engine

Censys maintains three datasets through daily ZMap scans of the Internet and by synchronizing with public certificate transparency logs:

  • Hosts on the Public IPv4 Address Space
  • Websites in the Alexa Top Million Domains
  • X.509 Certificates

You can search for records that meet certain criteria (e.g., IPv4 hosts in Germany manufactured by Siemens, or browser trusted certificates for github.com), generate reports on how websites are configured (e.g., what cipher suites are chosen by popular websites?), and track how networks have patched over time.

How to use Censys Networksearch


Simple Search

If you simply search for a word or phrase, Censys will return any records that contain the phrase. For example, searching for nginx will return any records that contain the word nginx. Searching for 23.0.0.0/8 will return all hosts in that network.

Advanced Search

Censys data is structured and supports more advanced queries including searching specific fields, specifying ranges of values, and boolean logic. For example, you can search for hosts with the HTTP Server Header “Apache” in Germany by running the query 80.http.get.headers.server: Apache and location.country_code: DE.

SQL Interface

To facilitate complex questions that can’t be expressed in a single search, we also allow researchers to run SQL queries against the raw datasets and historical snapshots.

You can access Censys here: https://www.censys.io/

Posted in: Networking Hacking

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UK Teen Earned More Than US$385,000 From DDoS Service

Use Netsparker


Another DDoS service down after the owner got busted, this time a UK teenager who created the service called Titanium Stresser when he was just 15.

UK Teen Earned More Than US$385,000 From DDoS Service

Not long ago we wrote about the two Israeli guys who got busted for running the VDoS-s.com DDoS Service.

There seems to be a bit of a crack down on such things going on, but with Mirai Source Code out there now – I don’t think they are going after the right targets.

A 19 year-old Hertfordshire man has pled guilty to running the Titanium Stresser booter service that offered distributed denial of service (DDoS)-as-a-service.

Such services are often marketed as innocuous and legitimate stress testing tools, but are instead often used for cheap and effective attacks of websites. Prosecutors say Adam Mudd earned more than US$385,000 (£315,000 A$505,000) by renting out the service he created as a 15 year-old.

He pled guilty at London’s Old Bailey to two offences under the Computer Misuse Act and one money laundering offence and will be sentenced in December. Bedfordshire Police say in a notice that Mudd’s now dead Titanium Stresser was used in many thousands of DDoS attacks by criminals renting the service.

Mudd is accused of committing 594 DDoS attacks against 181 targets between December 2013 and March last year. His platform became one of the most popular such services, even offering free 60-second DDoS attacks.


That’s a lot of money for someone who isn’t even 20 yet, he’s clearly very smart so I’m hoping he doesn’t go to jail for too long and get turned into a hardcore criminal.

He should come out and use his talents for something useful and build a legitimate career.

Mudd’s work would become the basis of the Lizard Stresser, another for-hire DDoS tool by boastful hacking group Lizard Squad, most famously used to take down the Xbox Live and Playstation networks over the 2014 festive break.

Police were able to nail Mudd thanks in part to his keeping of DDoS attack logs. Detective inspector Martin Peters of the Eastern Region Special Operations cyber crime unit says the case is regrettable due to Mudd’s misuse of talent.

“Adam Mudd’s case is a regrettable one, because this young man clearly has a lot of skill, but he has been utilising that talent for personal gain at the expense of others,” Peters says.

“We want to make clear it is not our wish to unnecessarily criminalise young people, but want to harness those skills before they accelerate into crime.”

Detective Peters says the investigation was complex with DDoS customers around the globe.

We will have to wait and see what the sentence will be like as this isn’t exactly a common charge, they can be a heavy handed sometimes though as they like to make an example when they do somehow manage to catch a cyber-criminal (as it’s not very often..).

Honestly DDoS services are probably one of my least favourite things (having been on the recieving end of a few) – that much fire-power should not be commoditised for a few dollars when taking a website down for a few hours can hurt a business really seriously.

Source: The Register

Posted in: Legal Issues, Networking Hacking

Topic: Legal Issues, Networking Hacking


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Snort – Free Network Intrusion Detection & Prevention System

The New Acunetix V12 Engine


Snort is an open-source, lightweight, free network intrusion detection system (NIDS) software for Linux and Windows to detect emerging threats. It’s capable of of performing real-time traffic analysis and packet logging on IP networks.

Snort - Free Network Intrusion Detection & Prevention System

It can perform protocol analysis, content searching/matching, and can be used to detect a variety of attacks and probes, such as buffer overflows, stealth port scans, CGI attacks, SMB probes, OS fingerprinting attempts, and much more.

With over 4 million downloads and over 500,000 registered users, Snort is the the most widely deployed intrusion prevention system in the world.


Features & Benefits

Snort has three primary uses: It can be used as a straight packet sniffer like tcpdump, a packet logger (useful for network traffic debugging, etc), or as a full blown network intrusion prevention system.

  • Scalability: Snort can be successfully deployed on any network environment.

  • Flexibility and Usability: Snort can run on various operating systems including Linux, Windows, and Mac OS X.

  • Live and Real-Time: Snort can deliver real-time network traffic event information.

  • Flexibility in Deployment: There are thousands of ways that Snort can be deployed and a myriad of databases, logging systems, and tools with which it can work.

  • Speed in Detecting and Responding to Security Threats: Used in conjunction with a firewall and other layers of security infrastructure, Snort helps organizations detect and respond to system crackers, worms, network vulnerabilities, security threats, and policy abusers that aim to take down network and computer systems.

  • Modular Detection Engine: Snort sensors are modular and can monitor multiple machines from one physical and logical location. Snort be placed in front of the firewall, behind the firewall, next to the firewall, and everywhere else to monitor an entire network. As a result, organizations use Snort as a security solution to find out if there are unauthorized attempts to hack in the network or if a hacker has gained unauthorized access into the network system.

You can download Snort here:

Source: snort-2.9.8.3.tar.gz
Windows: Snort_2_9_8_3_Installer.exe

Or read more here.

Posted in: Countermeasures, Networking Hacking, Security Software

Topic: Countermeasures, Networking Hacking, Security Software


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