CloudFrunt – Identify Misconfigured CloudFront Domains

Outsmart Malicious Hackers

CloudFrunt is a Python-based tool for identifying misconfigured CloudFront domains, it uses DNS and looks for CNAMEs which may be allowed to be associated with CloudFront distributions. This effectively allows for domain hijacking.

CloudFrunt - Identify Misconfigured CloudFront Domains

How CloudFrunt Works For Misconfigured CloudFront

CloudFront is a Content Delivery Network (CDN) provided by Amazon Web Services (AWS). CloudFront users create “distributions” that serve content from specific sources (an S3 bucket, for example).

Each CloudFront distribution has a unique endpoint for users to point their DNS records to (ex. All of the domains using a specific distribution need to be listed in the “Alternate Domain Names (CNAMEs)” field in the options for that distribution.

When a CloudFront endpoint receives a request, it does NOT automatically serve content from the corresponding distribution. Instead, CloudFront uses the HOST header of the request to determine which distribution to use. This means two things:

  1. If the HOST header does not match an entry in the “Alternate Domain Names (CNAMEs)” field of the intended distribution, the request will fail.
  2. Any other distribution that contains the specific domain in the HOST header will receive the request and respond to it normally.

This is what allows the domains to be hijacked. There are many cases where a CloudFront user fails to list all the necessary domains that might be received in the HOST header. For example:

  • The domain “” is a CNAME record that points to “”.
  • The “” domain is set up to use a CloudFront distribution.
  • Because “” was not added to the “Alternate Domain Names (CNAMEs)” field for the distribution, requests to “” will fail.
  • Another user can create a CloudFront distribution and add “” to the “Alternate Domain Names (CNAMEs)” field to hijack the domain.

This means that the unique endpoint that CloudFront binds to a single distribution is effectively meaningless. A request to one specific CloudFront subdomain is not limited to the distribution it is associated with.

CloudFrunt Usage to Identify Misconfigured CloudFront

After installing CloudFrunt and its dependencies you can run it with the following options:

CloudFrunt Usage

Related but not so similar is:

AWSBucketDump – AWS S3 Security Scanning Tool

You can download CloudFrunt here:

Or read more here.

Topic: Hacking Tools

Airbash – Fully Automated WPA PSK Handshake Capture Script

Outsmart Malicious Hackers

Airbash is a POSIX-compliant, fully automated WPA PSK handshake capture script aimed at penetration testing. It is compatible with Bash and Android Shell (tested on Kali Linux and Cyanogenmod 10.2) and uses aircrack-ng to scan for clients that are currently connected to access points (AP).

Airbash - Fully Automated WPA PSK Handshake Capture Script

Those clients are then deauthenticated in order to capture the handshake when attempting to reconnect to the AP. Verification of a captured handshake is done using aircrack-ng. If one or more handshakes are captured, they are entered into an SQLite3 database, along with the time of capture and current GPS data (if properly configured).

After capture, the database can be tested for vulnerable router models using It will search for entries that match the implemented modules, which currently include algorithms to compute default keys for Speedport 500-700 series, Thomson/SpeedTouch and UPC 7 digits (UPC1234567) routers.

Calculating Default WPA PSK Keys

After capturing a new handshake, the database can be queried for vulnerable router models. If a module applies, the default keys for this router series are calculated and used as input for aircrack-ng to try and recover the passphrase.

Airbash WPA PSK Handshake Capture Tool Usage

Running will create the database, prepare the folder structure and create shortlinks to both scripts which can be moved to a directory that is on $PATH to allow execution from any location.

After installation, you may need to manually adjust INTERFACE on line 46 in This will later be determined automatically, but for now the default is set to wlan0, to allow out of the box compatibility with bcmon on Android.

./ starts the script, automatically scanning and attacking targets that are not found in the database.
./ attempts to break known default key algorithms.

To view the database contents, run sqlite3 .db.sqlite3 "SELECT * FROM hs" in the main directory.

You can download Airbash here:

Or read more here.

Topic: Hacking Tools

XXEinjector – Automatic XXE Injection Tool For Exploitation

Use Netsparker

XXEinjector is a Ruby-based XXE Injection Tool that automates retrieving files using direct and out of band methods. Directory listing only works in Java applications and the brute forcing method needs to be used for other applications.

XXEinjector - Automatic XXE Injection Tool For Exploitation

Usage of XXEinjector XXE Injection Tool

XXEinjector actually has a LOT of options, so do have a look through to see how you can best leverage this type of attack. Obviously Ruby is a prequisite to run the tool.

If you aren’t familiar with XXE attacks you should start here first:

XXE Injection Attacks – XML External Entity Vulnerability With Examples

Usage examples for XXinjector

Enumerating /etc directory in HTTPS application:

Enumerating /etc directory using gopher for OOB method:

Second order exploitation:

Bruteforcing files using HTTP out of band method and netdoc protocol:

Enumerating using direct exploitation:

Enumerating unfiltered ports:

Stealing Windows hashes:

Uploading files using Java jar:

Executing system commands using PHP expect:

Testing for XSLT injection:

Log requests only:

You can download XXEinjector here:

Or read more here.

Topic: Hacking Tools

Yahoo! Fined 35 Million USD For Late Disclosure Of Hack

Outsmart Malicious Hackers

Ah Yahoo! in trouble again, this time the news is Yahoo! fined for 35 million USD by the SEC for the 2 years delayed disclosure of the massive hack, we actually reported on the incident in 2016 when it became public – Massive Yahoo Hack – 500 Million Accounts Compromised.

Yahoo! Fined 35 Million USD For Late Disclosure Of Hack

Yahoo! has been having a rocky time for quite a few years now and just recently has sold Flickr to SmugMug for an undisclosed amount, I hope that at least helps pay off some of the fine.

The Disaster Formerly Known as Yahoo! has been fined $35m by US financial watchdog, the SEC, for failing to tell anyone about one of the world’s largest ever computer security breaches.

Now known as Altaba following its long, slow and painful descent in irrelevance, Yahoo! knew that its entire user database – including billions of usernames, email addresses, phone numbers, birthdates, passwords, security questions – had been grabbed by Russian hackers back in December 2014 – just days after the break-in occurred.

Security staff informed senior Yahoo! management and its legal department, who then demonstrated the same kind of business and strategic nous that saw the company fold into itself when they decided to, um, not tell anyone.

It wasn’t until two years later when telco giant Verizon said it wanted to buy the troubled company that Yahoo! finally revealed the massive breach.

The SEC is, understandably, not overly impressed. “Yahoo! failed to properly investigate the circumstances of the breach and to adequately consider whether the breach needed to be disclosed to investors,” it said Tuesday, before the co-director of its enforcement division, Steven Peikin, gave what amounts to a vicious burn in the regulatory world.

“We do not second-guess good faith exercises of judgment about cyber-incident disclosure,” said Peikin. “But we have also cautioned that a company’s response to such an event could be so lacking that an enforcement action would be warranted. This is clearly such a case.”

Honestly, it was a pretty shady move, they knew about the compromise DAYS after the incident, it was escalated to the legal team and the senior management – they had material information but they chose to sit on it until the Verizon acquisition was on the table and due diligence would have uncovered it anyway.

Not exactly responsible disclosure or doing the best for the customers is it? But then, that’s Yahoo! and decisions like that demonstrate exactly why they are irrelevant today in 2018.

Another SEC staffer – director of its San Francisco office, Jina Choi, also piled in, noting that: “Yahoo!’s failure to have controls and procedures in place to assess its cyber-disclosure obligations ended up leaving its investors totally in the dark about a massive data breach. Public companies should have controls and procedures in place to properly evaluate cyber incidents and disclose material information to investors.”

Yahoo! should have let investors know about the massive breach in its quarterly and annual reports because of the huge business and legal implications to its business, the SEC said.

But it didn’t of course – probably because it was already desperate to get someone to buy it following years of abortive efforts by CEO Marissa Meyer to turnaround what was once the internet’s poster child.

The SEC also found that Yahoo! did not share information on the breach with either auditors or its outside lawyers. The Canadian who helped the Russians gain access to the data faces eight years in jail.

Yahoo! has “neither admitted nor denied the findings in the SEC’s order” – which is so Yahoo!.

For some reason Verizon still bought the dried out husk of the company in June 2017, although it extracted a significant reduction in the share price. It paid $350m less than its initial offer but it is estimated that it will cost Verizon $500m to clean up the mess Yahoo! left behind.

I’m starting to wonder if they will even still exist in 2025 or will have totally faded to join AskJeeves and Altavista.

The only value in Yahoo! today is basically it’s stake in Alibaba, Verizon bought it for 5% of it’s peak value and now it’s probably worth even less (Maybe only $1-2 Billion vs $100 Billion at its peak).

Source: The Register

Topic: Hacking News
Drupwn - Drupal Enumeration Tool & Security Scanner

Drupwn – Drupal Enumeration Tool & Security Scanner

Drupwn is a Python-based Drupal Enumeration Tool that also includes an exploit mode, which can check for and exploit relevant CVEs. Drupwn Drupal Enumeration Tool Hacking Features Drupwn can be run, using two separate modes which are enum and exploit. The enum mode allows performing enumerations whereas the exploit mode allows checking and exploiting CVEs. […]

Topic: Hacking Tools
MyEtherWallet DNS Hack Causes 17 Million USD User Loss

MyEtherWallet DNS Hack Causes 17 Million USD User Loss

Big news in the crypto scene this week was that the MyEtherWallet DNS Hack that occured managed to collect about $17 Million USD worth of Ethereum in just a few hours. The hack itself could have been MUCH bigger as it actually involved compromising 1300 Amazon AWS Route 53 DNS IP addresses, fortunately though only […]

Topic: Hacking News