Archive | September, 2007

TJX (T.J. Maxx and Marshall’s) Largest Breach of Customer Data in U.S. History

Outsmart Malicious Hackers


This case has been going on for a while but obviously hush hush, being that it is the largest breach of customer data in U.S. History. The details of the case have only started emerging in the last couple of months.

Information Week published a good article covering what has been going on recently.

Amazing the amount of data we are talking about here, 45 million customer records!

TJX will be glad when this year is over. The $17 billion-a-year parent company of T.J. Maxx, Marshall’s, and several other discount retail chains has spent the past eight months dealing with the largest breach of customer data in U.S. history, the details of which are starting to come to light.

Last December, TJX says it alerted law enforcement that data thieves had made off with more than 45 million customer records. Since that time, at least one business, Wal-Mart, has lost millions of dollars as a result of the theft, while TJX has spent more than $20 million investigating the breach, notifying customers, and hiring lawyers to handle dozens of lawsuits from customers and financial institutions. Should TJX lose in the courts, it could be on the hook for millions more in damages.

But there’s an even broader TJX Effect: The data breach, which actually took place over a period of years, has put the entire retail industry on the defensive and stirred up demands for all businesses that handle payment card information to do a better job of protecting it. Legislators are invoking TJX’s name to fast-track data-security bills.

Years? That’s scary, how can something like this happen? I can’t blame the retail industry for being shaken up. Credit card information does need to be safeguarded.

I hope legislation is approved to hold companies that leak data like water in a sieve, they should be fined some big cash and made to compensate every consumer that was negatively effected by fraudulent use of their credit cards.

Poorly secured in-store computer kiosks are at least partly to blame for acting as gateways to the company’s IT systems, InformationWeek has learned. According to a source familiar with the investigation who requested anonymity, the kiosks, located in many of TJX’s retail stores, let people apply for jobs electronically but also allowed direct access to the company’s network, as they weren’t protected by firewalls. “The people who started the breach opened up the back of those terminals and used USB drives to load software onto those terminals,” says the source. In a March filing with the Securities and Exchange Commission,TJX acknowledged finding “suspicious software” on its computer systems.

The USB drives contained a utility program that let the intruder or intruders take control of these computer kiosks and turn them into remote terminals that connected into TJX’s networks, according to the source. The firewalls on TJX’s main network weren’t set to defend against malicious traffic coming from the kiosks, the source says. Typically, the USB drives in the computer kiosks are used to plug in mice or printers. The kiosks “shouldn’t have been on the corporate LAN, and the USB ports should have been disabled,” the source says.

A pretty basic attack eh? Can you believe they were so negligent in setting up the kiosks? They virtually allowed full access to their corporate network!

Public resources should never have access to the same segments critical data are stored on…this is basic stuff!

They also owned via open Wifi networks in Marshall’s stores…sad eh?

Source: Information Week

Posted in: Hacking News, Legal Issues

Topic: Hacking News, Legal Issues


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httprint Download – Web Server Fingerprinting Tool

Outsmart Malicious Hackers


httprint is a web server fingerprinting tool. I was looking through my toolbox to see what else is useful and I came across this one, httprint – the only caveat is that it’s a little out of date. It still does a good job though.

httprint Download - Web Server Fingerprinting Tool


How does httprint work?

It relies on web server characteristics to accurately identify web servers, despite the fact that they may have been obfuscated by changing the server banner strings, or by plug-ins such as mod_security or servermask. httprint can also be used to detect web enabled devices which do not have a server banner string, such as wireless access points, routers, switches, cable modems, etc. httprint uses text signature strings and it is very easy to add signatures to the signature database.

More details on how httprint works can be found in the Introduction to HTTP fingerprinting paper. It is printer-friendly.

Main Features of httprint

  • Identification of web servers despite the banner string and any other obfuscation. It can successfully identify the underlying web servers when their headers are mangled by either patching the binary, by modules such as mod_security.c or by commercial products such as ServerMask.
  • Inventorying of web enabled devices such as printers, routers, switches, wireless access points, etc. Click on the sample HTML report.
  • Customisable web server signature database. To add new signatures, simply cut and paste the output against unknown servers into the signatures text file.
  • Confidence Ratings. It now picks the best matches based on confidence ratings, derived using a fuzzy logic technique, instead of going by the highest weight. More details on the significance of confidence ratings can be found in section 8.4 of the Introduction to HTTP fingerprinting paper.
  • Multi-threaded engine. Version 301 is a complete rewrite, featuring a multi-threaded scanner, to process multiple hosts in parallel. This greatly saves scanning time.
  • SSL information gathering. It now gathers SSL certificate information, which helps you identify expired SSL certificates, cyphers used, certificate issuer, and other such SSL related details.
  • Automatic SSL detection. It can detect if a port is SSL enabled or not, and can automatically switch to SSL connections when needed.
  • Automatic traversal of HTTP 301 and 302 redirects. Many servers who have transferred their content to other servers send a default redirect response towards all HTTP requests. httprint now follows the redirection and fingerprints the new server pointed to. This feature is enabled by default and can be turned off, if needed.

You can download httprint here:

Win32 – httprint_win32_301.zip

Linux – httprint_linux_301.zip

Or you can read more here.

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Gentoo Pulls the Plug after Getting Pwned

Outsmart Malicious Hackers


Gentoo Pulls the Plug after Getting Pwned

Gentoo pulled quite a few of it’s servers recently following the discovery of a fairly severe flaw in it’s systems.

Just to show that Linux systems aren’t invulnerable and immune to all security issues.

Ubuntu suffered quite heavily recently too, so don’t assume just because you use Linux you’re safe.

Admins with the Gentoo Project say they have disconnected major parts of its website a week after discovering it could be vulnerable to a command injection attack that allows bad guys to remotely execute code on the machine.

At time of writing, users trying to access Gentoo Archives and at least seven other areas of Gentoo.org got a message saying they were unavailable. Gentoo pulled the server hosting the sections “to prevent further exploitation and to allow for forensic analysis,” according to Gentoo’s homepage.

The words “further exploitation” and “forensic analysis” suggest the server was pwned, but Gentoo assures us the damage was minimal.

Not to say Linux is intrinsically unsafe either, you are definitely safer using Linux than Windows, especially if you don’t spend all your time using root.

Just be wary.

Members intend to rebuild the server and will also perform a security audit on source code for packages.gentoo.org, which is the service containing the injection vulnerability. According to this advisory, the vulnerability allows the remote execution of code by attaching a semicolon to the end of the URL, immediately followed by the command an attacker wants to run. The bottom of the page will then display the output of that command.

Gentoo’s advisory comes a week after Ubuntu unplugged five of its eight production servers following the discovery they had been so badly compromised that they were being used to attack other sites. Turns out the systems, which were sponsored by Canonical and hosted by the community, were running an old version of Ubuntu. Tsk, tsk.

The irony is…Gentoo servers are hosted on Ubuntu, old versions of Ubuntu with flaws!

Source: The Register

Posted in: Linux Hacking

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aircrack-ptw – Fast WEP Cracking Tool for Wireless Hacking

Outsmart Malicious Hackers


WEP is a protocol for securing wireless LANs. WEP stands for “Wired Equivalent Privacy” which means it should provide the level of protection a wired LAN has. WEP therefore uses the RC4 stream to encrypt data which is transmitted over the air, using usually a single secret key (called the root key or WEP key) of a length of 40 or 104 bit.

A history of WEP and RC4

WEP was previously known to be insecure. In 2001 Scott Fluhrer, Itsik Mantin, and Adi Shamir published an analysis of the RC4 stream cipher. Some time later, it was shown that this attack can be applied to WEP and the secret key can be recovered from about 4,000,000 to 6,000,000 captured data packets. In 2004 a hacker named KoReK improved the attack: the complexity of recovering a 104 bit secret key was reduced to 500,000 to 2,000,000 captured packets.

In 2005, Andreas Klein presented another analysis of the RC4 stream cipher. Klein showed that there are more correlations between the RC4 keystream and the key than the ones found by Fluhrer, Mantin, and Shamir which can additionally be used to break WEP in WEP like usage modes.

The aircrack-ptw attack

The aircrack team were able to extend Klein’s attack and optimize it for usage against WEP. Using this version, it is possible to recover a 104 bit WEP key with probability 50% using just 40,000 captured packets. For 60,000 available data packets, the success probability is about 80% and for 85,000 data packets about 95%. Using active techniques like deauth and ARP re-injection, 40,000 packets can be captured in less than one minute under good condition. The actual computation takes about 3 seconds and 3 MB main memory on a Pentium-M 1.7 GHz and can additionally be optimized for devices with slower CPUs. The same attack can be used for 40 bit keys too with an even higher success probability.


Countermeasures

We believe that WEP should not be used anymore in sensitive environments. Most wireless equipment vendors provide support for TKIP (as known as WPA1) and CCMP (also known as WPA2) which provides a much higher security level. All users should switch to WPA1 or even better WPA2.

You can download aircrack-ptw here:

aircrack-ptw-1.0.0.tar.gz

Or read more here.

Find an aircrack-ptw How To here.

Please note aircrack-ptw should be used together with the aircrack-ng toolsuite.

Posted in: Hacking Tools, Wireless Hacking

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Voting Machines Lose to Hackers Again

Outsmart Malicious Hackers


I’m sure everyone remembers the Diebold voting fiasco with their system getting pwned multiple times. Back in May 2006 it was announced from multiple sources that the Diebold system was critically flawed.

Then more recently Hackers in the Philippines were Invited to Crack Internet Voting, which is definitely positive step to increase security in voting applications.

Now more recently it’s been announced that voting machines have lost to hackers again.

State-sanctioned teams of computer hackers were able to break through the security of virtually every model of California’s voting machines and change results or take control of some of the systems’ electronic functions, according to a University of California study released Friday.

The researchers “were able to bypass physical and software security in every machine they tested,” said Secretary of State Debra Bowen, who authorized the “top to bottom review” of every voting system certified by the state.

Thankfully this time they were state-sanctioned hackers and not black hats or anarchists. But it shows again the voting system are flawed, most likely the very architecture they are built on hasn’t been thought through properly.

Neither Bowen nor the investigators were willing to say exactly how vulnerable California elections are to computer hackers, especially because the team of computer experts from the UC system had top-of-the-line security information plus more time and better access to the voting machines than would-be vote thieves likely would have.

“All information available to the secretary of state was made available to the testers,” including operating manuals, software and source codes usually kept secret by the voting machine companies, said Matt Bishop, UC Davis computer science professor who led the “red team” hacking effort, said in his summary of the results.

Of course they wouldn’t publicly state how badly they’ve screwed up…but still it doesn’t look good.

The machines really should be de-certified, even though there was no probability analysis, or risk profiling. There are still flaws there and something needs to be done about it.

Source: SFGate

Posted in: Exploits/Vulnerabilities, Legal Issues

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LORCON (Loss Of Radio CONnectivity) 802.11 Packet Library

Keep on Guard!


The LORCON packet injection library provides a high level interface to transmit IEEE 802.11 packets onto a wireless medium. Written for Linux systems, this architecture simplifies the development of 802.11 packet injection through an abstraction layer, making the development of auditing and assessment tools driver- independent.

Using LORCON, developers can write tools that inject packets onto the wireless network without writing driver-specific code, simply by asking the user to identify the driver name they are currently using for a specified interface.

The project goal is to create what libradiate could have been: A generic library for injecting 802.11 frames, capable of injection via multiple driver frameworks, without forcing modification of the application code.

Nearing 1.0 public release. Once FreeBSD support is incorporated, the first full packaged release of Lorcon will be made, stay tuned!

Supported drivers:

  • wlan-ng
  • hostap
  • airjack
  • prism54
  • madwifing
  • madwifiold
  • rtl8180
  • rt2570
  • rt2500
  • rt73
  • rt61
  • zd1211rw

You can find some more information here:

LORCON Man Page

You can get the latest code from SVN here:

Or read more here.

Posted in: Networking Hacking, Secure Coding, Wireless Hacking

Topic: Networking Hacking, Secure Coding, Wireless Hacking


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