Archive | October, 2015

DAMM – Differential Analysis of Malware in Memory

The New Acunetix V12 Engine


Differential Analysis of Malware in Memory (DAMM) is a tool built on top of Volatility Framework. Its main objective is as a test bed for some newer techniques in memory analysis, including performance enhancements via persistent SQLite storage of plugin results (optional); comparing in-memory objects across multiple memory samples, for example processes running in an uninfected samples versus those in an infected sample; data reduction via smart filtering (e.g., on a pid across several plugins); and encoding a set of expert domain knowledge to sniff out indicators of malicious activity, like hidden processes and DLLs, or windows built-in processes running form the wrong directory.

DAMM - Differential Analysis of Malware in Memory

It is meant as a proving ground for interesting new techniques to be made available to the community. These techniques are an attempt to speed up the investigation process through data reduction and codifying some expert knowledge.

Features

  • ~30 Volatility plugins combined into ~20 DAMM plugins (e.g., pslist, psxview and other elements are combined into a ‘processes’ plugin)
  • Can run multiple plugins in one invocation
  • The option to store plugin results in SQLite databases for preservation or for “cached” analysis
  • A filtering/type system that allows easily filtering on attributes like pids to see all information related to some process and exact or partial matching for strings, etc.
  • The ability to show the differences between two databases of results for the same or similar machines and manipulate from the cmdline how the differencing operates
  • The ability to warn on certain types of suspicious behavior
  • Output for terminal, tsv or grepable

Usage

Most DAMM output looks better piped through ‘less -S’ (upper ‘S’) as in:


Warnings

In an attempt to make the triage process even easier, DAMM has an experimental warning system built in to sniff out signs of malicious activity including:

For certain Windows processes:

  • incorrect parent/child relationships
  • hidden processes
  • incorrect binary path
  • incorrect default priority
  • incorrect session

For all processes, and loaded DLLs and modules:

  • loaded/run from temp directory

For DLLs:

  • bogus extensions
  • hidden DLLs

Plus more!

  • PE headers in injections
  • SIDs giving domain access
  • debug privileges …

See the warnings.py file for much more information on what DAMM checks for.

DAMM-v1.0.zip

You can download DAMM here:

Or read more here.

Posted in: Forensics, Malware

Topic: Forensics, Malware


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FBI Recommends Crypto Ransomware Victims Just Pay

The New Acunetix V12 Engine


Crypto ransomware is a type of malware that holds you ransom by encrypting your files and has been around for a while, but the FBI recently said at a cyber security summit that they advise companies that fall victim just to pay.

FBI Recommends Crypto Ransomware Victims Just Pay

Such malware tends to use pretty strong encryption algorithms like RSA-2048, which you aren’t going to be able to crack. So yah, pragmatically speaking if you got stung by this type of infection – you don’t really have much choice other than to pay.

The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) advises companies that fall victim to hacks involving Cryptolocker, Cryptowall or other forms of ransomware to pay the ransom, said Joseph Bonavolonta, an assistant special agent with FBI, speaking at the Cyber Security Summit 2015 in Boston

Noting that while the agency has their back, “the ransomware is that good,” the Security Ledger quoted Bonavolonta as saying. “To be honest, we often advise people just to pay the ransom” because efforts by the Bureau to defeat the encryption used have proved futile.

But he added that the success of the ransomware has benefited the victims in a twisted way because having so many people willing to pay has driven the price down since malware authors are less likely to try to charge excessive ransom amounts.


Even with all the power the Bureau has, they can’t crack this kind of stuff. And well even if they could, they aren’t going to fire up their super computer farm again some companies encrypted stash of ransomed Excel documents.

It’s interesting to see them kind of officially say it though, that this ransomware is really well made and you don’t really have much choice.

Stu Sjouwerman, CEO at KnowBe4, told SCMagazine.com that he agrees in part with the Bonavolonta’s advice because if a company stands to lose week’s or month’s worth of work while trying to decrypt its files, paying out $500 or so in ransom can be viewed as the equivalent of what he called a cheap “security audit.”

However, Sjouwerman said that the FBI should focus more on education and prevention rather than just giving in to the bad guys.

“I understand where they are coming from but rewarding the bad guys for bad behavior will only reinforce bad behavior,” Sjouwerman said.

He recommended that companies have backup files that are regularly tested, be religious about application and operating system updates, and ensure employees are trained in cybersecurity best practices.

So yah, if you run an organisation, without backups – you kinda deserve this kinda scam coming in your direction. But just be aware, if you do get an infection it could be costly and a royal pain in the arse.

Source: SC Magazine

Posted in: Malware

Topic: Malware


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Infernal Twin – Automatic Wifi Hacking Tool

The New Acunetix V12 Engine


Infernal Twin is an automatic wifi hacking tool, basically a Python suite created to aid penetration testers during wireless assessments, it automates many of the common attacks – which can get complicated and hard to manage when executed manually.

Infernal Twin - Automatic Wifi Hacking Tool


The author noticed a gap in the market with there being many tools to automate web application testing and network pen-tests, but no auto wifi hacker aimed at Wifi apart from some commercial tools. So this is an attempt to create a ‘1-click’ style auto wifi cracker – something like Metasploit. A framework with a whole bunch of different attack vectors bundled together in one interface.

What is an Evil Twin Attack?

An evil twin is a deceitful Wi-Fi access point that seems, by all accounts, to be the real deal, set up to listen stealthily on remote communications. The evil twin is the wireless LAN version of Phishing.

This type of attack vector might be utilized to grab the passwords of wireless clients, either by monitoring their network connections or by phishing, which includes setting up a fake site and drawing individuals there.

Features of Infernal Twin – Automatic Wifi Hacking Tool

  • WPA2 hacking
  • WEP Hacking
  • WPA2 Enterprise hacking
  • Wireless Social Engineering
  • SSL Strip
  • Evil Access Point Creation
  • Infernal Wireless
  • Report generation
  • PDF Report
  • HTML Report
  • Note taking function
  • Data is saved into Database
  • Network mapping
  • MiTM
  • Probe Request

The tool leverages the work done on other utilities to avoid reinventing the wheel, popular wifi security tools such as aircrack-ng and SSLStrip.

You can download Infernal Twin automatic Wifi Hacking Tool here:

infernal-twin-master.zip

Or read more here.

Posted in: Hacking Tools, Wireless Hacking

Topic: Hacking Tools, Wireless Hacking


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WP Security Audit Log – A Complete Audit Log Plugin For WordPress

Use Netsparker


WP Security Audit Log is a complete audit log plugin for WordPress, which helps you keep an audit log of everything that is happening on your WordPress and WordPress multisite installation. Ensure user productivity and identify WordPress security issues before they become a security problem. This is claimed to be the most comprehensive user monitoring and audit log plugin for WordPress and is already helping thousands of WordPress administrators, owners and security professionals ensure the security of their websites and blogs.

WP Security Audit Log - A Complete Audit Log Plugin For WordPress

Increase the security of your WordPress install with good security measures, supplement it by installing WP Security Audit Log and using tools like WPScan the WordPress Vulnerability Scanner.

Features

The plugin has a number of features that make WordPress and WordPress multisite monitoring and auditing easier, such as:

  • Realtime Audit Log viewer to watch user activity as it happens without any delays
  • Built-in support for reverse proxies and web application firewalls more information
  • Limit who can view the security alerts by users and roles
  • Limit who can manage the plugin by users and roles
  • Configurable WordPress dashboard widget highlighting the most recent critical activity
  • Configurable WordPress security alerts pruning rules
  • User role is reported in alerts for a complete overview of what is happening
  • User avatar is reported in the alerts for better recognizability
  • Enable or disable any security alerts

It also has a whole bunch of extensions/add-ons which are mostly paid which allow you to do things like store the log in an external database and generate compliance reports.

Logs Generated

The main purpose of using this, is that it keeps a log of everything happening on your WordPress blog or website and WordPress multisite install. This plugin makes it easier to track suspicious user activity before it becomes a problem or a security issue. A security alert is generated by the plugin when:

  • New user is created via registration or by another user
  • User changes the role, password or other profile settings of another user
  • User on a WordPress multisite network is added or removed from a site
  • User uploads or deletes a file, changes a password or email address
  • User installs, activates, deactivates, upgrades or uninstalls a plugin
  • User creates a new post, page, category or a custom post type
  • User modifies an existing post, page, category or a custom post type
  • User creates, modifies or deletes a custom field from a post, page or custom post type
  • User adds, moves, modifies or deletes a widget
  • User installs or activates a new WordPress theme
  • User changes WordPress settings such as permalinks or administrator notification email
  • WordPress is updated / upgraded
  • Failed login attempts

It also helps with troubleshooting and enables you to quickly pin-point what went down before a problem occured. Very helpful if you support a lot of WordPress customer sites.

You can download WP Security Audit Log latest stable version here:

wp-security-audit-log.latest-stable.zip

Or read more here.

Posted in: Countermeasures, Security Software

Topic: Countermeasures, Security Software


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Fitbit Vulnerability Means Your Tracker Could Spread Malware

The New Acunetix V12 Engine


So it seems there is a Fitbit vulnerability involving the BlueTooth implementation that can be used to embed self replicating malware onto the wearable fitness tracker. I actually own a Fitbit, and have had previous models too, so this is quite interesting to me.

Fitbit Vulnerability Means Your Tracker Could Spread Malware

The malware could spread to your PC/Laptop if you’re using the syncing dongle, or to other Fitbit trackers. From what I’ve read of it though, it’s mostly theoretical. It could work under some circumstances, but there’s no real live code out there infecting Fitbit devices and spreading itself.

A vulnerability in FitBit fitness trackers first reported to the vendor in March could still be exploited by the person you sit next to on a park bench while catching your breath.

The athletic-achievement-accumulating wearables are wide open on their Bluetooth ports, according to research by Fortinet. The attack is quick, and can spread to other computers to which an infected FitBit connects.

Attacks over Bluetooth require an attacker hacker to be within meters of a target device. This malware can be delivered 10 seconds after devices connect, making even fleeting proximity a problem. Testing the success of the hack takes about a minute, although it is unnecessary for the compromise.

Fortinet researcher Axelle Apvrille (@cryptax) told Vulture South that full persistence means it does not matter if the FitBit Flex is restarted; any computer that connects with the wearable can be infected with a backdoor, trojan, or whatever the attacker desires.

“An attacker sends an infected packet to a fitness tracker nearby at bluetooth distance then the rest of the attack occurs by itself, without any special need for the attacker being near,” Apvrille says.

“[When] the victim wishes to synchronise his or her fitness data with FitBit servers to update their profile … the fitness tracker responds to the query, but in addition to the standard message, the response is tainted with the infected code.

“From there, it can deliver a specific malicious payload on the laptop, that is, start a backdoor, or have the machine crash [and] can propagate the infection to other trackers (Fitbits).”

It is the first time malware has been viably delivered to fitness trackers.


You can see the video of the PoC here – FitBit malware injection by Axelle Apvrille.

It’s an interesting area for sure, wearable security – along with the whole Internet of Things movement, it could be one the next security/privacy frontiers. Imagine in urban, high density areas, there must be literally thousands of these devices within close proximity to each other.

The rate a real worm could spread, would be quite scary.

The attack vectors are still present. Apvrille warned FitBit in March and says the company considers it a bug which will be squashed at some point.

Apvrille, a respected malware researcher, will offer a proof-of-concept demonstration video at the Hack.Lu conference in Luxembourg tomorrow.

“The video demonstrates that the infection persists over multiple messages,” she says. “Even when I fully reset the connection with the tracker, most of the infected bytes persist, so that means we have enough space to convey a short malicious code.”

Apvrille has pulled off other hacks; she is able to manipulate the number of counted steps and logged distance to earn badges that can be traded in for discounts and prizes.

Those badges can be turned into discounts and gifts through third-party companies such as Higi which in April launched an API to help companies receive health data derived from wearables.

Apvrille has reversed 24 messages from the Fitbit tracker and 20 from the USB Bluetooth dongle as part of the largely ground-up reverse engineering work since the devices are closed-source and do not come with documentation on software internals.

She says communication is over XML and Bluetooth Low Energy while encryption and decryption occurs on the wearable device, and not on the dongle which is “outside of the security boundaries”.

The communications data sets are divided into “mega dumps” that include walking steps and user activity information, and “micro dumps” which relate to pairing, server responses, and device identifiers.

The work adds new information on the low-level software internals of Fitbit to an existing repository of work built by fellow researchers.

It’s a bit sad that Fitbit has known about this since March, but the vector isn’t fixed. They do say they will fix it, but there’s no timeline as to when.

I hope the bad guys don’t pick this up and run with it. I’m personally pretty safe, as there’s a very low penetration of wearables where I am, but it could be terrible for the industry as a whole.

Source: The Register

Posted in: Exploits/Vulnerabilities, Hardware Hacking, Malware

Topic: Exploits/Vulnerabilities, Hardware Hacking, Malware


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OWASP WebGoat Download – Deliberately Insecure Web Application

The New Acunetix V12 Engine


WebGoat is a deliberately insecure web application maintained by OWASP designed to teach web application security lessons. This program is a demonstration of common server-side application flaws. The exercises are intended to be used by people to learn about application security and penetration testing techniques.

OWASP WebGoat Download - Deliberately Insecure Web Application


What does OWASP WebGoat Do?

In each lesson, users must demonstrate their understanding of a security issue by exploiting a real vulnerability in the WebGoat applications. For example, in one of the lessons the user must use SQL injection to steal fake credit card numbers. The application is a realistic teaching environment, providing users with hints and code to further explain the lesson.

Why the name “WebGoat”? Developers should not feel bad about not knowing security. Even the best programmers make security errors. What they need is a scapegoat, right? Just blame it on the ‘Goat!

Once deployed, the user can go through the lessons and track their progress with the scorecard.

Web application security is difficult to learn and practice. Not many people have full blown web applications like online book stores or online banks that can be used to scan for vulnerabilities. In addition, security professionals frequently need to test tools against a platform known to be vulnerable to ensure that they perform as advertised.

All of this needs to happen in a safe and legal environment. Even if your intentions are good, we believe you should never attempt to find vulnerabilities without permission. The primary goal of the WebGoat project is simple: create a de-facto interactive teaching environment for web application security.

We’ve written about various Vulnerable Web Apps before including those such as:

Mutillidae – Vulnerable Web-Application To Learn Web Hacking
OWASP Bricks – Modular Deliberately Vulnerable Web Application
WackoPicko – Vulnerable Website For Learning & Security Tool Evaluation
Jarlsberg – Learn Web Application Exploits and Defenses
Damn Vulnerable Web App – Learn & Practise Web Hacking

What can you learn from OWASP WebGoat?


  • Cross-site Scripting (XSS)
  • Access Control
  • Thread Safety
  • Hidden Form Field Manipulation
  • Parameter Manipulation
  • Weak Session Cookies
  • Blind SQL Injection
  • Numeric SQL Injection
  • String SQL Injection
  • Web Services
  • Fail Open Authentication
  • Dangers of HTML Comments
  • … and many more!

How to use OWASP WebGoat & Tutorials

The easiest way to start WebGoat is to use Docker.

Run it Docker:

Browse to http://localhost:8080/WebGoat and Happy Hacking!

You find tutorials, installation details and everything else you need to get going here:

https://github.com/WebGoat/WebGoat/wiki

WebGoat Download

The WebGoat download for 7.1 is here:

webgoat-container-7.1-exec.jar

Or read more here.

Posted in: Web Hacking

Topic: Web Hacking


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