Archive | May, 2015

OWASP Zed Attack Proxy – Integrated Penetration Testing Tool

The New Acunetix V12 Engine


The OWASP Zed Attack Proxy (ZAP) is an easy to use integrated penetration testing tool for finding vulnerabilities in web applications. It is designed to be used by people with a wide range of security experience and as such is ideal for developers and functional testers who are new to penetration testing as well as being a useful addition to an experienced pen testers toolbox.

With its automated scanner and powerful REST API, ZAP fits seamlessly into your continuous integration environment, allowing you to automate the finding of common issues while you’re still in development.

OWASP Zed Attack Proxy Version - Integrated Penetration Testing Tool

It’s classified as a flagship project for OWASP meaning it’s mature and has demonstrated strategic value to OWASP and application security as a whole. It’s also fully translated into 25 different languages, which is more than a lot of commercial/enterprise tools.

Alternatives to ZAP would be:

Fiddler – Web Debugging Proxy For HTTP(S)
Burp Suite Free Edition v1.4 – Web Application Security Testing Tool
Charles Web Debugging Proxy – HTTP Monitor & Reverse Proxy

We have written about ZAP before, when it first hit v1.0 back in 2010 and again when they had a major update in 2011.


Features

  • Open source
  • Cross platform
  • Easy to install
  • Completely free
  • Ease of use a priority
  • Comprehensive help pages
  • Fully internationalized
  • Translated into a dozen languages
  • Community based, with involvement actively encouraged
  • Under active development by an international team of volunteers

Functionality

  • Intercepting proxy
  • Traditional and AJAX spiders
  • Active scanner
  • Passive scanner
  • Forced Browsing
  • Fuzzer
  • Dynamic SSL certificates
  • Smart card support
  • Web sockets support
  • Authentication and session support
  • Powerful REST based API
  • Support for a wide range of scripting languages
  • Automatic updating option
  • Integrated and growing marketplace of add-ons

When used as a proxy server it allows the user to manipulate all of the traffic that passes through it, including traffic using https. It can also run in a ‘daemon’ mode which is then controlled via a REST Application programming interface.

This cross-platform tool is written in Java and is available in all of the popular operating systems including Microsoft Windows, Linux and Mac OS X.

You can download ZAP here:

Windows – ZAP_2.4.0_Windows.exe
Linux – ZAP_2.4.0_Linux.tar.gz
Mac OS X – ZAP_2.4.0_Mac_OS_X.dmg

There is also a Docker image available here.

Or read more here.

Posted in: Hacking Tools, Web Hacking

Topic: Hacking Tools, Web Hacking


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IRS Was Not Hacked – Taxpayer Data Stolen For 100,000 People

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So the IRS was not hacked – as many media outlets are claiming. Was taxpayer data stolen from IRS systems? Yes, did it involve any kind of hack (by any definition) – no.

There was no intrusion, there was some clever phishing, data slurping and brute forcing – of people who already had their data stolen it’s important to note.

IRS Was Not Hacked - Taxpayer Data Stolen For 100,000 People

It seems the biggest leak was of tax returns and the illegal access is to bolster the stolen identities of folks who had already been compromised by some other means.

The US Internal Revenue Service said on Tuesday that info including tax returns and income forms for some 100,000 people were illegally accessed this year.

The US tax agency believes a group collected a trove of information on the victims and then used that data to fill out the authentication forms for the IRS’s online “Get Transcript” feature, which allows taxpayers to access past tax records.

To say that the IRS itself was “hacked” – as some journos squawked today – is more than a stretch. The criminals did not compromise any IRS servers or exploit technical glitches in the Get Transcript feature. Rather, they gathered an obscene amount of personal data from their victims via other means, and then typed that data to the IRS site.

“Third parties succeeded in clearing a multi-step authentication process that required prior personal knowledge about the taxpayer, including Social Security information, date of birth, tax filing status and street address before accessing IRS systems,” the IRS told The Reg in an emailed statement.

“The multi-layer process also requires an additional step, where applicants must correctly answer several personal identity verification questions that typically are only known by the taxpayer.”

According to the IRS, the data theft operation ran from February through mid-May, when the activity was detected. In total, the IRS said 200,000 attempts to access personal information were made from “questionable” email accounts, about half of which resulted in successfully accessing the Get Transcript function.


The one thing that surprises me is that so many bogus requests were not detected earlier, as I’m pretty sure a lot of questions were answered wrongly and retried possibly multiple times.

Perhaps the attackers were very smart though and used different IP addresses, different browser agents, different submission timings etc. And not noticing 200,000 illicit requests from “questionable” e-mail addresses – that seems kinda lackadaisical.

It is not known how the personal information used to fill out the transcript requests was gathered, or from where.

“The matter is under continuing review by the Treasury Inspector General for Tax Administration and IRS offices, including Criminal Investigation,” the IRS said. “The IRS notes this issue does not involve its main computer system that handles tax filing submission; that system remains secure.”

The IRS has shut down the Get Transcript portal until further notice. The tax authority will also provide free credit monitoring services to those who were affected by the illegal access – and given the nature of the data required for access, they’ll need it.

When your Social Security Number, date of birth, marital state, home address, and enough personal background to answer a handful of verification questions has been taken by an identity thief, you probably have other things to worry about than whether they view your 1040EZ.

Again, we would advise those not affected not to panic over any sensationalist “IRS has been hacked!” headlines currently floating around news and social media. This was not a breach of any IRS systems, but rather what appears to be the result of some very extensive phishing/data harvesting from 100,000 unlucky individuals.

So yah to summarise it’s not a hack, but it does expose some weakness in the IRS Get Transcript service and due to that, they’ve disabled it at the moment.

But as the article mentions, if the attackers already had that much information on you (SSN, address, personal information) – them getting access to your historical tax returns is the least of your worries.

Source: The Register

Posted in: Legal Issues, Privacy

Topic: Legal Issues, Privacy


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zzuf – Multi-Purpose Application Input Fuzzing Tool

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zzuf is a transparent application input fuzzing tool or fuzzer. Its purpose is to find bugs in applications by corrupting their user-contributed data (which more than often comes from untrusted sources on the Internet). It works by intercepting file and network operations and changing random bits in the program’s input.

zzuf’s behaviour is deterministic, making it easier to reproduce bugs.

zzuf - Multi-Purpose Application Input Fuzzing Tool

Its main areas of use are:

  • quality assurance: use zzuf to test existing software, or integrate it into your own software’s testsuite
  • security: very often, segmentation faults or memory corruption issues mean a potential security hole, zzuf helps exposing some of them
  • code coverage analysis: use zzuf to maximise code coverage

zzuf’s primary target is media players, image viewers and web browsers, because the data they process is inherently insecure, but it was also successfully used to find bugs in system utilities such as objdump.

zzuf is not rocket science: the idea of fuzzing input data is barely new, but zzuf’s main purpose is to make things easier and automated.

You can download zzuf here:

Mac OS X universal binary: zzuf-osx-0.13.tar.gz
Latest Source from Github: master.zip

Or read more here.

Posted in: Hacking Tools, Secure Coding

Topic: Hacking Tools, Secure Coding


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Web Security Dojo 2.0 – Self-Contained Web Hacking Training

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Web Security Dojo is a free open-source self-contained web hacking training environment for Web Application Security penetration testing. Tools + Targets = Dojo

Web Security Dojo 2.0 - Self-Contained Web Hacking Training

What?

Various web application security testing tools and vulnerable web applications were added to a clean install of xubuntu 12.04. Build scripts are available in git at Sourceforge.

Targets include:


Why?

The Web Security Dojo is for learning and practising web app security testing techniques. It is ideal for self-teaching and skill assessment, as well as training classes and conferences since it does not need a network connection since it contains both tools and targets. Also, this removes the possibility of remote attack on the targets, which are insecure by design. The Dojo contains everything needed to get started – tools, targets, and documentation.

Tools included (starred = new this version):

You can download Web Security Dojo v2.0 here:

Web_Security_Dojo-2.0.ova

Or read more here.

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The Logjam Attack – ANOTHER Critical TLS Weakness

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So it seems SSL/TLS has not been having a good time lately, alongside Heartbleed and POODLE we now have the Logjam attack.

It’s somewhat similar to the FREAK attack earlier this year, but that attacked the RSA key exchange and was due to an implementation vulnerability rather than Logjam which attacks the Diffie-Hellman key exchange as is due to a flaw in the TLS protocol.

The Logjam Attack - ANOTHER Critical TLS Weakness

The Logjam attack allows a man-in-the-middle attacker to downgrade vulnerable TLS connections to 512-bit export-grade cryptography. This allows the attacker to read and modify any data passed over the connection. The attack affects any server that supports DHE_EXPORT ciphers, and affects all modern web browsers. 8.4% of the Top 1 Million domains were initially vulnerable.

Source – weakdh.org

The full technical report is here: Imperfect Forward Secrecy: How Diffie-Hellman Fails in Practice [PDF]

Who is affected?

Websites, mail servers, and other TLS-dependent services that support DHE_EXPORT ciphers are at risk for the Logjam attack. Websites that use one of a few commonly shared 1024-bit Diffie-Hellman groups may be susceptible to passive eavesdropping from an attacker with nation-state resources.

Millions of HTTPS, SSH, and VPN servers all use the same prime numbers for Diffie-Hellman key exchange. Practitioners believed this was safe as long as new key exchange messages were generated for every connection. However, the first step in the number field sieve—the most efficient algorithm for breaking a Diffie-Hellman connection—is dependent only on this prime. After this first step, an attacker can quickly break individual connections.

The researchers estimate that an academic team can break a 768-bit prime and that a nation-state can break a 1024-bit prime. Breaking the single, most common 1024-bit prime used by web servers would allow passive eavesdropping on connections to 18% of the Top 1 Million HTTPS domains. A second prime would allow passive decryption of connections to 66% of VPN servers and 26% of SSH servers. A close reading of published NSA leaks shows that the agency’s attacks on VPNs are consistent with having achieved such a break.


Are you at risk?

If you update as soon as patches are available on a regular basis, probably not. Microsoft patched it on May 12 with security bulletin MS15-055, Google fixed the issue with the Chrome 42 update, which debuted on April 15 and the Firefox patch is on the way.

If you run servers or are a Sys Admin, there’s full details here on what you can do and a test tool:

Guide to Deploying Diffie-Hellman for TLS

The researchers have 3 recommendations for deploying Diffie-Hellman:

  • Disable Export Cipher Suites. Even though modern browsers no longer support export suites, the FREAK and Logjam attacks allow a man-in-the-middle attacker to trick browsers into using export-grade cryptography, after which the TLS connection can be decrypted. Export ciphers are a remnant of 1990s-era policy that prevented strong cryptographic protocols from being exported from United States. No modern clients rely on export suites and there is little downside in disabling them.
  • Deploy (Ephemeral) Elliptic-Curve Diffie-Hellman (ECDHE). Elliptic-Curve Diffie-Hellman (ECDH) key exchange avoids all known feasible cryptanalytic attacks, and modern web browsers now prefer ECDHE over the original, finite field, Diffie-Hellman. The discrete log algorithms we used to attack standard Diffie-Hellman groups do not gain as strong of an advantage from precomputation, and individual servers do not need to generate unique elliptic curves.
  • Generate a Strong, Unique Diffie Hellman Group. A few fixed groups are used by millions of servers, which makes them an optimal target for precomputation, and potential eavesdropping. Administrators should generate unique, 2048-bit or stronger Diffie-Hellman groups using “safe” primes for each website or server.

This whole thing does raise some issues with trust, trust in cryptography, in the algorithms, the implementation and the fact that cryptography brings along with it certain promises that should avoid nation state eavesdropping.

I guess we’ll have to wait a little longer to see how dangerous this is in the practical world.

Posted in: Cryptography, Exploits/Vulnerabilities

Topic: Cryptography, Exploits/Vulnerabilities


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Plecost – WordPress Fingerprinting Tool

The New Acunetix V12 Engine


Plecost is a WordPress fingerprinting tool, it can search and retrieve information about the plug-in versions installed in a WordPress installation. It can be used to analyse a single URL or perform an analysis based on the results indexed by Google.

Additionally it also displays the CVE code associated with each plug-in vulnerability, if any exist.

Plecost - WordPress Fingerprinting Tool

The other tool similar to this is – WPScan – WordPress Security/Vulnerability Scanner. There’s also CMSmap – Content Management System Security Scanner – which has some WordPress functionality.

What’s New?

This Plecost v1.0.1 (major release) has a lot of new features and fixes, like:

  • Code rewritten in Python 3.
  • Thread support removed, now runs faster & uses less memory with Python 3 asyncio and non-blocking connections.
  • Changed CVE update system and storage: Now Plecost get vulnerabilities directly from NIST and create a local SQLite data base with filtered information for WordPress and their plugins.
  • WordPress Core vulnerabilities: Now Plecost also manage WordPress Core Vulnerabilities (not only for the plug-ins).
  • Add local vulnerability database are queryable. You can consult the vulnerabilities for a concrete WordPress or plug-ins without, using the local database.
  • Installation via pip

You can download Plecost here:

plecost-v1.0.1.zip

Or read more here.

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