Archive | August, 2011

Hackers Get Hold Of Wildcard Google SSL Certificate – Could Hijack Gmail Accounts

Keep on Guard!


One of the big discussions points this week is about a wildcard cert for Google that has leaked out from a Dutch company called DigiNotar. The certificate is good for all Google domains – it’s a *.google.com cert.

This is bad news and apparently has been in the wild for a while, some people are linking to deaths in Iran as the cert could be used to hijack Gmail accounts using a MITM attack.

If you want to check out the cert directly, you can do so here:

Gmail.com SSL MITM ATTACK BY Iranian Government – 27/8/2011

The story seems to originate here where a user in Iran noticed a MITM was being perpetrated on him – probably by his own ISP or government.

Is This MITM Attack to Gmail’s SSL ?

Hackers have obtained a digital certificate good for any Google website from a Dutch certificate provider, a security researcher said today. Criminals could use the certificate to conduct “man-in-the-middle” attacks targeting users of Gmail, Google’s search engine or any other service operated by the Mountain View, Calif. company.

“This is a wildcard for any of the Google domains,” said Roel Schouwenberg, senior malware researcher with Kaspersky Lab, in an email interview Monday.

“[Attackers] could poison DNS, present their site with the fake cert and bingo, they have the user’s credentials,” said Andrew Storms, director of security operations at nCircle Security.

Man-in-the-middle attacks could also be launched via spam messages with links leading to a site posing as, say, the real Gmail. If recipients surfed to that link, their account login username and password could be hijacked. Details of the certificate were posted on Pastebin.com last Saturday. Pastebin.com is a public site where developers — including hackers — often post source code samples.

According to Schouwenberg, the SSL (secure socket layer) certificate is valid, and was issued by DigiNotar, a Dutch certificate authority, or CA. DigiNotar was acquired earlier this year by Chicago-based Vasco, which bills itself on its site as “a world leader in strong authentication.”

Vasco did not reply to a request for comment.

The cert is valid, which is scary. One thing which is currently unknown is how the cert got out there, if it was a hack or a leak or someone from the outside got access to the DigiNotar CA.

If you want more technical details on how to verify the cert, you can check this out:

Internet death sentence for DigiNotar’s Root CA!


Security researcher and Tor developer Jacob Applebaum confirmed that the certificate was valid in an email answer to Computerworld questions, as did noted SSL researcher Moxie Marlinspike on Twitter. “Yep, just verified the signature, that pastebin *.google.com certificate is real,” said Marlinspike .

Because the certificate is valid, a browser would not display a warning message if its user went to a website signed with the certificate.

It’s unclear whether the certificate was obtained because of a lack of oversight by DigiNotar or through a breach of the company’s certificate issuing website.

Schouwenberg urged the company to provide more information as soon as possible.

“Given their ties to the government and financial sectors it’s extremely important we find out the scope of the breach as quickly as possible,” Schouwenberg said. The situation was reminiscent of a breach last March, when a hacker obtained certificates for some of the Web’s biggest sites, including Google and Gmail, Microsoft, Skype and Yahoo.

Then, Comodo said that nine certificates had been fraudulently issued after attackers used an account assigned to a company partner in southern Europe.

Initially, Comodo argued that Iran’s government may have been involved in the theft. Days later, however, a solo Iranian hacker claimed responsibility for stealing the SSL certificates.

Today, Kaspersky’s Schouwenberg said “nation-state involvement is the most plausible explanation” for the acquisition of the DigiNotar-issued certificate.

Google have also mentioned in on their security blog here:

Today we received reports of attempted SSL man-in-the-middle (MITM) attacks against Google users, whereby someone tried to get between them and encrypted Google services. The people affected were primarily located in Iran. The attacker used a fraudulent SSL certificate issued by DigiNotar, a root certificate authority that should not issue certificates for Google (and has since revoked it).

An update on attempted man-in-the-middle attacks

There was also quick action taken by both Mozilla and Microsoft.

It’s been pretty quiet really to say this is really a major issue, I hope more details come out about how this occurred. If you are using Firefox there are instructions on how to delete/distrust the DigiNotar CA here.

Source: Network World

Posted in: Exploits/Vulnerabilities, Legal Issues, Privacy

Topic: Exploits/Vulnerabilities, Legal Issues, Privacy


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WebSurgery – Web Application Security Testing Suite

Outsmart Malicious Hackers


WebSurgery is a suite of tools for security testing of web applications. It was designed for security auditors to help them with the web application planning and exploitation. Currently, it uses an efficient, fast and stable Web Crawler, File/Dir Brute forcer, Fuzzer for advanced exploitation of known and unusual vulnerabilities such as SQL Injection, Cross site scripting (XSS), Brute force for login forms, identification of firewall-filtered rules, DOS Attacks and WEB Proxy to analyze, intercept and manipulate the traffic between your browser and the target web application.

WEB Crawler

WEB Crawler was designed to be fast, accurate, stable, completely parametrable and the use of advanced techniques to extract links from Javascript and HTML Tags. It works with parametrable timing settings (Timeout, Threading, Max Data Size, Retries) and a number of rules parameters to prevent infinitive loops and pointless scanning (Case Sensitive, Dir Depth, Process Above/Below, Submit Forms, Fetch Indexes/Sitemaps, Max Requests per File/Script Parameters). It is also possible to apply custom headers (user agent, cookies etc) and Include/Exclude Filters. WEB Crawler come with an embedded File/Dir Brute Forcer which helps to directly brute force for files/dirs in the directories found from crawling.

WEB Bruteforcer

WEB Bruteforcer is a brute forcer for files and directories within the web application which helps to identify the hidden structure. It is also multi-threaded and completely parametrable for timing settings (Timeout, Threading, Max Data Size, Retries) and rules (Headers, Base Dir, Brute force Dirs/Files, Recursive, File’s Extension, Send GET/HEAD, Follow Redirects, Process Cookies and List generator configuration).
By default, it will brute force from root / base dir recursively for both files and directories. It sends both HEAD and GET requests when it needs it (HEAD to identify if the file/dir exists and then GET to retrieve the full response).


WEB Fuzzer

WEB Fuzzer is a more advanced tool to create a number of requests based on one initial request. Fuzzer has no limits and can be used to exploit known vulnerabilities such (blind) SQL Inections and more unsual ways such identifing improper input handling, firewall/filtering rules, DOS Attacks.

WEB Editor

A simple WEB Editor to send individual requests. It also contains a HEX Editor for more advanced requests.

WEB Proxy

WEB Proxy is a proxy server running locally and will allow you to analyze, intercept and manipulate HTTP/HTTPS requests coming from your browser or other application which support proxies.

You can download WebSurgery here:

Setup – setup.msi
Portable – websurgery.zip

Or read more here.

Posted in: Hacking Tools, Web Hacking

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Stealing ATM Pin Numbers Using Thermal Imaging Cameras

Outsmart Malicious Hackers


Now this is a really neat bit of hardware hacking, it’s been a while since we’ve reported on any kind of ATM Skimming or ATM Hacking stories.

You may remember back in November 2010 – European Banks Seeing New Wave Of ATM Skimming or way back in 2008 when Pro ATM Hacker ‘Chao’ Gives Out ATM Hacking Tips.

The latest is this neat hack that came out of a method outlined by Michal Zalewski back in 2005:

Cracking safes with thermal imaging

Security researchers have found that thermal cameras can be combined with computer algorithms to automate the process of stealing payment card data processed by automatic teller machines.

At the Usenix Security Symposium in San Francisco last week, the researchers said the technique has advantages over more common ATM skimming methods that use traditional cameras to capture the PINs people enter during transactions. That’s because customers often obscure a camera’s view with their bodies, either inadvertently or on purpose. What’s more, it can take a considerable amount of time for crooks to view the captured footage and log the code entered during each session.

Thermal imaging can vastly improve the process by recovering the code for some time after each PIN is entered. Their output can also be processed by an algorithm that automates the process of translating it into the secret code.

The hack works extremely efficiently on ATMs using plastic keypads, it will not work on metal keypads and this method works up to 60 seconds after you’ve used the ATM.

I’m not sure about you guys but all the ATMs I’ve seen here are using metal keypads, so it wouldn’t work too well over here.

Either way it’s a fairly cool hack and I’m glad to see, so far there’s no proof of thieves using it in the wild.


The findings expand on 2005 research from Michal Zalewski, who is now a member of Google’s security team. The Usenix presenters tested the technique laid out by Zalewski on 21 subjects who used 27 randomly selected PINs and found the rate of success varied depending on variables including the types of keypads and the subjects’ body temperature.

“In summary, while we document that post-hoc thermal imaging attacks are feasible and automatable, we also find that the window of vulnerability is far more modest than some feared and that there are simple counter-measures (i.e., deploying keypads with high thermal conductivity) that can shrink this vulnerability further still,” the researchers wrote.

I wonder if we’ll see a spate of real life attacks based around this technique now the paper has been published publicly.

You can grab the paper discussing the technique here: Heat of the Moment: Characterizing the Efficacy of Thermal Camera-Based Attacks [PDF].

Source: The Register

Posted in: Hardware Hacking, Privacy

Topic: Hardware Hacking, Privacy


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Arachni v0.3 Released – Web Application Security Scanner Framework

Keep on Guard!


It’s been a while since we last mentioned Arachni, it was back in February – Arachni v0.2.2.1 – Web Application Security Scanner Framework.

For those who are not aware, Arachni is a fully automated system which tries to enforce the fire and forget principle. As soon as a scan is started it will not bother you for anything nor require further user interaction. Upon completion, the scan results will be saved in a file which you can later convert to several different formats (HTML, Plain Text, XML, etc.)

The project was initially started as an educational exercise though it has since evolved into a powerful and modular framework allowing for fast, accurate and flexible security/vulnerability assessments..

More than that, Arachni is highly extend-able allowing for anyone to improve upon it by adding custom components and tailoring most aspects to meet most needs.

The author notified us of a major new release (v0.3) which has some great new features, a few of those being:


  • A new custom-written, lightweight Spider
  • Add-on support for the WebUI
    • Scan scheduler
    • AutoDeploy — Convert any SSH enabled Linux box into a Dispatcher
  • Improved accuracy of differential analysis audits
  • Improved accuracy of timing attack audits
  • Highly optimized timing attacks

If you are interested in the WebUI aspect you can check out some screenshots here, the more comprehensive ChangeLog is also available here.

For those of you into benchmarking and testing you might be interested to know that during a recent test Arachni was the only (from a long list of commercial and F/OSS systems) that hit 100% on both XSS and SQLi tests in the WAVSEP benchmark:

Commercial Web Application Scanner Benchmark

The author is doing a great job with this tool and rapidly closing the gap between free security scanners and the very expensive commercial options. If you do have any feedback on Arachni v0.3 drop a comment here or hit up the Arachni Google Group.

You can download Arachni v0.3 here:

arachni-v0.3-cde.tar.gz

Or read more here.

Posted in: Hacking Tools, Web Hacking

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Collar Bomber Gets Owned By Word Metadata & USB Drive

Keep on Guard!


There were other more technical and probably relevant stories to report on today, but for some reason I just found this story very odd and strangely fascinating.

Now here a strange case, a man climbs into a young girls bedroom in the middle of the night, threatens her with a baseball bat and then chains a bomb to her neck. His random instructions include e-mailing to a Gmail account and he leaves a ‘soft copy’ version of the ransom note on a pen-drive with the girl.

You can find the court docs here – Collar Bomber Complaint

The man who claimed to have attached a bomb collar to an Australian high school student two weeks ago thought it would be a good idea to leave a ransom note on a USB stick looped around her neck. What he probably didn’t realize is that he also left his name, hidden deep in the device’s memory.

Court documents unsealed Tuesday describe the harrowing Aug. 3 incident, which began when a man broke into Madeline Pulver’s bedroom wearing a striped balaclava and wielding a black aluminum baseball bat. He told her to sit down and chained a black box around her neck.

He also draped a purple lanyard over the terrified girl with a note saying that the black box was a bomb. The note included ransom instructions for Pulver’s family, telling them to e-mail a Google address — dirkstraun1840@gmail.com — for further instructions. Also on the lanyard was a 4GB USB stick that contained a digital version of the note, saved as a pdf file.

The next 10 hours were a gruelling ordeal for the girl before a Sydney police bomb squad was able to determined that the threat was a hoax. But a closer look at the USB drive turned up a couple of files that the criminal thought he’d deleted. One of them, a version of the ransom note written in Microsoft Word, contained metadata about the document’s author, including his name: “Paul P.”

On Monday, U.S. authorities arrested Paul “Doug” Peters, 50, in La Grange, Kentucky, seeking to extradite him to Australia to face kidnapping and breaking-and-entering charges. It’s not clear why Peters attempted such a bizarre crime, but U.S. prosecutors say he once worked for a company linked to Pulver’s family. The girl’s father, Bill Pulver, is the CEO of voice recognition software company Appen Butler Hill.

There are plenty of metadata extraction tools such as Metagoofil and The Revisionist. And well even without those, after recovering the file you can just open it in Word and view the metadata.

I’m guessing this Paul Peters chap wasn’t so familiar with wear levelling and metadata. He should have known better, and well he was doing this for a ransom..so really he should have just bought a new pen-drive for the job.

But as we know well, these people don’t think like we do – that’s why they end up in the news.


Police collected footage from surveillance cameras in a library where a computer was used to access the Gmail account. The footage, along with the USB drive and circumstantial evidence, such as purchases made around the time of the incident, link Peters to the crime, prosecutors say.

Even if the collar bomber had known his name was on the USB drive, it would have been very hard to remove it, according to Frank McClain, an independent computer forensics expert.

As computer geeks and investigators know, when users delete a file from a computer the file isn’t deleted immediately from the hard drive. Instead, the computer takes note that the area of the disk where the file is stored is now available to be written over. So investigators can often recover at least snippets of data from files that are supposed to have been deleted.

With flash drives things are more complex, thanks to mechanisms built into the drives to prolong their lifespan. Because flash memory cells stop working after they’ve been overwritten too many times, flash devices use tricks called “wear leveling” to even out how the memory cells are used. A side effect of wear levelling is that it is “almost impossible” to completely erase data from a flash device, McClain said.

That can come in handy for people trying to recover photos or other files they’ve accidentally deleted, and there are many tools, some of them free, to help recover their data.

The collar bomber’s first mistake was thinking he could delete something completely from his USB stick. But he also erred by not altering the metadata in his Word document. When Word saves a document, it automatically saves data, such as the user’s login name, as part of the file. Office 2007 users can see this metadata by hitting the Office button, then “Prepare” and “Properties.”

Well there you go, an interesting mid-week story – not entirely sure what is going to happen to this guy. Doesn’t seem like a really strong case for extradition – he just seems like a complete nutcase.

He had a decent enough idea for extortion I suppose, just a really poor execution. Perhaps he’s been watching to o many Hollywood movies where these things seem really easy and nothing even goes wrong.

BTW if any of you readers out there see any cool new tools/techniques or news tidbits that I may have missed, I always welcome a heads-up so just hit me up on the Contact Page here.

Source: Network World

Posted in: Forensics, Legal Issues

Topic: Forensics, Legal Issues


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Mediggo – Tool To Detect Weak Or Insecure Cryptosystems Using Generic Cryptanalysis Techniques

Outsmart Malicious Hackers


Mediggo is an opensource cryptanalysis library. This library implements generic cryptanalysis techniques to detect weak or insecure cryptosystems or learn and practice with cryptanalysis.

This library is open source (LGPL licence) and written in C programming language. Samples and test cases are provided with each techniques:

  • the solution is not always given to make people practice
  • the solution can always be obtained by contacting the development team

Current Features

  • Detection and cryptanalysis of weakly implemented or trapped systems

Future Features

  • Automatic detection of statistical biases in cryptographic algorithms.
  • Specific cryptanalysis tools.

You can download Mediggo here:

megiddo-0.4.0.tar.gz

Or read more here.

Posted in: Cryptography, Hacking Tools

Topic: Cryptography, Hacking Tools


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