Archive | March, 2011

NASA Systems At Risk From Hacking Attacks

Outsmart Malicious Hackers


It’s not surprising really, when I learned that the recently retired NASA space shuttle was still using 5.25″ floppy drives – I suspected that much of the NASA IT architecture was probably antiquated.

Also the recent SCADA related security scare, indicated the industrial and large-scale systems probably aren’t the most secure around.

Combine those two lines of reasoning together and you get a fairly solid conclusion that NASA networks (especially those controlling old equipment like shuttles) are probably horribly insecure.

An official audit of NASA’s network has concluded that the space agency faces a high risk of cyberattack.

Experts from the Office of the Inspector General (OIG) paint a grim picture of the state of the space agency’s server infrastructure, warning that vulnerabilities in its systems leave it open to defacement, denial of service or information-stealing attacks.

In particular, six unnamed IT systems were found to be at risk to attacks that might allow hackers to seize remote control of critical systems over the net – which included systems that control spacecraft – as a result of unpatched software vulnerabilities. The OIG’s report (24-page PDF/703 KB, extract of conclusions below) also warns that sensitive account information is poorly protected and wide open to extraction for any attackers who make it past NASA’s perimeter defences.

Add that to the fact that back in 2008 The International Space Station Was Infected by a Virus and you should be fairly wary of NASA security.

OIG recently provided this with a recent security audit of the the server infrastructure and networks at NASA, the findings were not pretty. The full report is available for download here:

IG-11-017.pdf

Obviously NASA claims all the vulnerabilities found during the OIG audit have been fixed, but what about all the rest that haven’t been found yet? I sincerely hope they start implementing a more holistic approach to security rather than just reactive patching.


We found that computer servers on NASA’s Agency-wide mission network had high-risk vulnerabilities that were exploitable from the internet. Specifically, six computer servers associated with IT assets that control spacecraft and contain critical data had vulnerabilities that would allow a remote attacker to take control of or render them unavailable.

Moreover, once inside the Agency-wide mission network, the attacker could use the compromised computers to exploit other weaknesses we identified, a situation that could severely degrade or cripple NASA’s operations. We also found network servers that revealed encryption keys, encrypted passwords, and user account information to potential attackers. These data are sensitive and provide attackers additional ways to gain unauthorized access to NASA networks.

It is quite worrying as NASA has been a fairly frequent victim of cyber-crime and attacks, especially when it comes to stealing data. Remember the whole Gary McKinnon case is because he hacked NASA.

It was also suggested by an OIG audit in May 2010 that they implement an agency wide computer security program, it seems that hasn’t been done. Hopefully with this hitting the mainstream media this time around, something wil lget fixed.

Source: The Register

Learn about Exploits/Vulnerabilities



Posted in: Exploits/Vulnerabilities, Legal Issues, Privacy

Topic: Exploits/Vulnerabilities, Legal Issues, Privacy

Latest Posts:


AWSBucketDump - AWS S3 Security Scanning Tool AWSBucketDump – AWS S3 Security Scanning Tool
AWSBucketDump is an AWS S3 Security Scanning Tool, which allows you to quickly enumerate AWS S3 buckets to look for interesting or confidential files.
nbtscan Download - NetBIOS Scanner For Windows & Linux nbtscan Download – NetBIOS Scanner For Windows & Linux
nbtscan is a command-line NetBIOS scanner for Windows that is SUPER fast, it scans for open NetBIOS nameservers on a local or remote TCP/IP network.
Equifax Data Breach - Hack Due To Missed Apache Patch Equifax Data Breach – Hack Due To Missed Apache Patch
The Equifax data breach is pretty huge with 143 million records leaked from the hack in the US alone with unknown more in Canada and the UK.
Seth - RDP Man In The Middle Attack Tool Seth – RDP Man In The Middle Attack Tool
Seth is an RDP Man In The Middle attack tool written in Python to MiTM RDP connections by attempting to downgrade the connection to extract clear text creds
dcrawl - Web Crawler For Unique Domains dcrawl – Web Crawler For Unique Domains
dcrawl is a simple, but smart, multithreaded web crawler for randomly gathering huge lists of unique domain names. It will branch out indefinitely.
Time Warner Hacked - AWS Config Exposes 4M Subscribers Time Warner Hacked – AWS Config Exposes 4M Subscribers
What's the latest on the web, Time Warner Hacked is what it's about now as a bad AWS S3 config (once again) exposes the details of approximately 4M subs.


T50 – Experimental Mixed Packet Injector & Network Stress Testing Tool

Keep on Guard!


T50 Sukhoi PAK FA Mixed Packet Injector (f.k.a. F22 Raptor) is a tool designed to perform “Stress Testing”.

It is a powerful and an unique packet injection tool, that is capable of the below:

1 – Send sequentially (i.e., ALMOST on the same time) the following protocols:

  • ICMP: Internet Control Message Protocol
  • IGMP: Internet Group Management Protocol
  • TCP: Transmission Control Protocol
  • UDP: User Datagram Protocol

2 – Send an (quite) incredible amount of packets per second, making it a “second to none” tool:

  • More than 1,000,000 pps of SYN Flood (+50% of the network’s uplink) in a 1000BASE-T Network (Gigabit Ethernet).
  • More than 120,000 pps of SYN Flood (+60% of the network’s uplink) in a 100BASE-TX Network (Fast Ethernet).

3 – Perform “Stress Testing” on a variety of network infrastructure, network devices and security solutions in place.

4 – Simulate Denial-of-Service attacks, validating the Firewall rules and Intrusion Detection System/Intrusion Prevention System policies.

You can download T50 here:

t50-5.4.1.tar.gz

Or read more here.

Learn about Hacking Tools



Posted in: Hacking Tools, Networking Hacking

Topic: Hacking Tools, Networking Hacking

Latest Posts:


AWSBucketDump - AWS S3 Security Scanning Tool AWSBucketDump – AWS S3 Security Scanning Tool
AWSBucketDump is an AWS S3 Security Scanning Tool, which allows you to quickly enumerate AWS S3 buckets to look for interesting or confidential files.
nbtscan Download - NetBIOS Scanner For Windows & Linux nbtscan Download – NetBIOS Scanner For Windows & Linux
nbtscan is a command-line NetBIOS scanner for Windows that is SUPER fast, it scans for open NetBIOS nameservers on a local or remote TCP/IP network.
Equifax Data Breach - Hack Due To Missed Apache Patch Equifax Data Breach – Hack Due To Missed Apache Patch
The Equifax data breach is pretty huge with 143 million records leaked from the hack in the US alone with unknown more in Canada and the UK.
Seth - RDP Man In The Middle Attack Tool Seth – RDP Man In The Middle Attack Tool
Seth is an RDP Man In The Middle attack tool written in Python to MiTM RDP connections by attempting to downgrade the connection to extract clear text creds
dcrawl - Web Crawler For Unique Domains dcrawl – Web Crawler For Unique Domains
dcrawl is a simple, but smart, multithreaded web crawler for randomly gathering huge lists of unique domain names. It will branch out indefinitely.
Time Warner Hacked - AWS Config Exposes 4M Subscribers Time Warner Hacked – AWS Config Exposes 4M Subscribers
What's the latest on the web, Time Warner Hacked is what it's about now as a bad AWS S3 config (once again) exposes the details of approximately 4M subs.


RSA Silent About Compromise For 7 Days – Assume SecurID Is Broken

Keep on Guard!


About a week ago we tweeted about the “Open Letter” from RSA to customers, a rather vague letter. If you haven’t read it yet, you can do so here.

To summarise, they basically said “Recently, our security systems identified an extremely sophisticated cyber attack in progress being mounted against RSA. […] Our investigation also revealed that the attack resulted in certain information being extracted from RSA’s systems. Some of that information is specifically related to RSA’s SecurID two-factor authentication products.“.

And well that’s about it, they’ve been totally tight lipped since then. There is a link to some ‘updated info for SecurID customers’ – but it’s behind a customer login.

It’s been a week since RSA dropped a vaguely worded bombshell on 30,000 customers that the soundness of the SecurID system they used to secure their corporate and governmental networks was compromised after hackers stole confidential information concerning the two-factor authentication product.

For seven days, reporters, researchers, and customers have called on RSA, and its parent corporation EMC, to specify what data was lifted – or at the very least to say if it included details that could allow government or corporate spies to predict the one-time passwords that SecurID tokens generate every 60 seconds. And for seven days, the company has resolutely refused to answer. Instead, RSA has parroted Security 101 how-tos about strong passwords, support-desk best practices, and the dangers of clicking on email attachments.

Officials from RSA and EMC have steadfastly refused to give yes or no answers to two questions that have profound consequences for the 40 million or so accounts that are protected by SecurID: Were the individual seed values used to generate a new pseudo-random number exposed and, similarly, was the mechanism that maps a token’s serial number to its seed leaked?

Without the answers to those two basic questions, RSA customers can’t make educated decisions about whether to continue relying on SecurID to prevent unauthorized logins to their sensitive networks. After all, if the breach on RSA’s servers exposed the seeds and the mapping mechanism, SecurID customers have lost one of the factors offered by the two-factor authentication product.

An RSA spokesman released an updated statement earlier this week that said in part: “Our investigation to date has revealed that the attack resulted in certain information being extracted from RSA’s systems. Even with this information being extracted, RSA SecurID technology continues to be an effective authentication solution for customers.” (Notice the statement didn’t say “an effective two-factor authentication solution.”)

And well seen as though RSA isn’t exactly forthcoming with a detailed statement or at least exactly what has been compromised – people are going to start assuming. The first logical assumption is that SecurID is broken or has been compromised in some way.

This may not be the case, and if so – RSA really needs to clarify that. This is really not the way in which an industry leader should be acting. There are approximately 40 million accounts protected by SecurID and for the past 7 days RSA has refused to answer the two most important questions.

  • Can you specifcy what data was lifted?
  • And did it include details that could break SecurID?

As to breaking SecurID, well did the attackers steal enough data to allow someone to predict the one-time passwords that SecurID tokens generate?


The latest example of these so-called advanced persistent threats came Wednesday when digital certificate authority Comodo disclosed its private encryption keys were used to generate counterfeit credentials for Google Mail and six other sensitive addresses. The CEO has claimed that the attack, which was perpetrated on an unnamed SSL certificate reseller of Comodo, had the hallmarks of state-sponsored hackers, most likely from Iran, although he provided no convincing proof.

“The security companies who are providing authentication are being directly attacked by the government,” CEO Melih Abdulhayoglu said.

This is precisely the assumption being taken by a security administrator who was in the process of helping a financial institution set up a SecurID system when RSA made last week’s announcement. He told The Reg on Thursday that he’s spent the past week trying to pry meaningful details out of RSA, so far without success.

“If they don’t give me an answer by the end of tomorrow about whether the seeds were taken, I’m returning the product,” said the admin, who asked not to be named because he wasn’t authorized to speak publicly. “Their integrity is just shot. Yes, they got hacked but their response is what’s so troubling. The silence is deafening.”

SecurID’s two-factor authentication may not be broken, but until RSA comes clean and provides some yes or no answers to two simple questions, it’s better to assume it is. The network security you preserve may be your own.

As per usual, don’t trust 3rd party solutions, don’t trust proprietary solutions – if you want to maintain total security – you better manage everything yourself. I think this could really hurt sales for RSA and it’s just about destroying their integrity.

Fine if you don’t want to give explicit details, at least clarify in black and white that SecurID is still totally safe to use.

We’ll be waiting for more news from RSA, hopefully their clarifications will come soon and explain everything properly. Until then, be careful.

Source: The Register

Learn about Cryptography



Posted in: Cryptography, Exploits/Vulnerabilities

Topic: Cryptography, Exploits/Vulnerabilities

Latest Posts:


AWSBucketDump - AWS S3 Security Scanning Tool AWSBucketDump – AWS S3 Security Scanning Tool
AWSBucketDump is an AWS S3 Security Scanning Tool, which allows you to quickly enumerate AWS S3 buckets to look for interesting or confidential files.
nbtscan Download - NetBIOS Scanner For Windows & Linux nbtscan Download – NetBIOS Scanner For Windows & Linux
nbtscan is a command-line NetBIOS scanner for Windows that is SUPER fast, it scans for open NetBIOS nameservers on a local or remote TCP/IP network.
Equifax Data Breach - Hack Due To Missed Apache Patch Equifax Data Breach – Hack Due To Missed Apache Patch
The Equifax data breach is pretty huge with 143 million records leaked from the hack in the US alone with unknown more in Canada and the UK.
Seth - RDP Man In The Middle Attack Tool Seth – RDP Man In The Middle Attack Tool
Seth is an RDP Man In The Middle attack tool written in Python to MiTM RDP connections by attempting to downgrade the connection to extract clear text creds
dcrawl - Web Crawler For Unique Domains dcrawl – Web Crawler For Unique Domains
dcrawl is a simple, but smart, multithreaded web crawler for randomly gathering huge lists of unique domain names. It will branch out indefinitely.
Time Warner Hacked - AWS Config Exposes 4M Subscribers Time Warner Hacked – AWS Config Exposes 4M Subscribers
What's the latest on the web, Time Warner Hacked is what it's about now as a bad AWS S3 config (once again) exposes the details of approximately 4M subs.


CAT – Web Application Security Test & Assessment Tool

Outsmart Malicious Hackers


CAT is designed to facilitate manual web application penetration testing for more complex, demanding application testing tasks. It removes some of the more repetitive elements of the testing process, allowing the tester to focus on individual applications, thus enabling them to conduct a much more thorough test. Conceptually it is similar to other proxies available both commercially and open source, but CAT provides a richer feature set and greater performance, combined with a more intuitive user interface.

There are a number of differences between CAT and currently available web proxies. They include:

  • CAT uses Internet Explorer’s rendering engine for accurate HTML representation
  • It supports many different types of text conversions including: URL, Base64, Hex, Unicode, HTML/XML, SQL and JavaScript no quotes
  • It offers integrated SQL Injection and XSS Detection
  • Synchronised Proxies for Authentication and Authorisation checking
  • Faster performance due to HTTP connection caching
  • SSL Version and Cipher checker using OpenSSL
  • Greater flexibility for importing/exporting logs and saving projects
  • Tabbed Interface allows for multiple tools at once e.g. multiple repeaters & different logs
  • The ability to repeat and modify a sequence of requests (particularly useful in SSO testing)
  • It’s free!

Do bear in mind that this is a free tool, but it is NOT Open Source. Also take a good look at the EULA before using it (especially Section 6).

You can download CAT Beta 4 here:

CAT_Beta_4.msi

Or read more here. (Thanks to reader Simon for the heads-up on this.)

Learn about Hacking Tools



Posted in: Hacking Tools, Secure Coding, Web Hacking

Topic: Hacking Tools, Secure Coding, Web Hacking

Latest Posts:


AWSBucketDump - AWS S3 Security Scanning Tool AWSBucketDump – AWS S3 Security Scanning Tool
AWSBucketDump is an AWS S3 Security Scanning Tool, which allows you to quickly enumerate AWS S3 buckets to look for interesting or confidential files.
nbtscan Download - NetBIOS Scanner For Windows & Linux nbtscan Download – NetBIOS Scanner For Windows & Linux
nbtscan is a command-line NetBIOS scanner for Windows that is SUPER fast, it scans for open NetBIOS nameservers on a local or remote TCP/IP network.
Equifax Data Breach - Hack Due To Missed Apache Patch Equifax Data Breach – Hack Due To Missed Apache Patch
The Equifax data breach is pretty huge with 143 million records leaked from the hack in the US alone with unknown more in Canada and the UK.
Seth - RDP Man In The Middle Attack Tool Seth – RDP Man In The Middle Attack Tool
Seth is an RDP Man In The Middle attack tool written in Python to MiTM RDP connections by attempting to downgrade the connection to extract clear text creds
dcrawl - Web Crawler For Unique Domains dcrawl – Web Crawler For Unique Domains
dcrawl is a simple, but smart, multithreaded web crawler for randomly gathering huge lists of unique domain names. It will branch out indefinitely.
Time Warner Hacked - AWS Config Exposes 4M Subscribers Time Warner Hacked – AWS Config Exposes 4M Subscribers
What's the latest on the web, Time Warner Hacked is what it's about now as a bad AWS S3 config (once again) exposes the details of approximately 4M subs.


Exploits For Popular SCADA Programs Made Public

Keep on Guard!


SCADA is not something we’ve mentioned before, we have covered related areas with articles such as – Industrial Control Systems Safe? I Think Not.

Plus the whole Stuxnet thing which was able to attack nuclear plants. In a way I find it ironic because so much more emphasis these days is put on the security of things like Twitter and Facebook, but the industrial control systems in factories and nuclear refining facilities are left unsecured.

It just goes to show how devastating a focused attack against these kind of large scale control systems could be.

The security of software used to control hardware at nuclear plants, gas refineries and other industrial settings is coming under renewed scrutiny as researchers released attack code exploiting dozens of serious vulnerabilities in widely used programs.

The flaws, which reside in programs sold by Siemens, Iconics, 7-Technologies, Datac, and Control Microsystems, in many cases make it possible for attackers to remotely execute code when the so-called supervisory control and data acquisition software is installed on machines connected to the internet. Attack code was released by researchers from two separate security camps over the past week.

“SCADA is a critical field but nobody really cares about it,” Luigi Auriemma, one of the researchers, wrote in an email sent to The Register. “That’s also the reason why I have preferred to release these vulnerabilities under the full-disclosure philosophy.”

The vulnerability dump includes proof-of-concept code for at least 34 vulnerabilities in widely used SCADA programs sold by four different vendors. Auriemma said the majority of the bugs allow code execution, while others allow attackers to access sensitive data stored in configuration files and one makes it possible to disrupt equipment that uses the software. He included a complete rundown of the vulnerabilities and their corresponding PoC code in a post published on Monday to the Bugtraq mail list.

There are a whole long list of vulnerabilities including PoC code posted publicly on Bugtraq this past Monday:

Vulnerabilities in some SCADA server softwares

The vulnerabilities include software by popular vendors such as Siemens. If you don’t know what SCADA is it stands for supervisory control and data acquisition.

The e-mail explains it well:

In case someone doesn’t know SCADA (like me before the tests): it’s just one or more softwares (usually a core, a graphical part and a database) that allow people to monitor and control the various hardware sensors and mechanisms located in industrial environments like nuclear plants, refineries, gas pipelines, airports and other less and more critical fields that go from the energy to the public infrastructures and obviously also the small “normal” industries.

Pretty heavy stuff, more on Wiki here – SCADA.


It came six days after a Moscow-based security firm called Gleg announced the availability of Agora SCADA+, which attempts to collect virtually all known SCADA vulnerabilities into a single exploit pack. The 22 modules include exploits for 11 zero-day vulnerabilities, said the company’s Yuriy Gurkin in an email. It’s not clear how much the package costs.

Gurkin said Gleg’s website has come under sustained web attacks shortly after releasing the SCADA exploit pack.

“We have tried to switch to ddoshostingsolutions.com provider but in just 3 days were out of 500 GB traffic limit,” he said. “Currently trying to solve this.”

The vulnerability of SCADA systems had long been theorized, but it wasn’t until last year that the world got an object lesson on just how susceptible they could be to attack. In July, researchers reported the discovery of a computer worm that attacked SCADA software sold by Siemens. Research later showed that the underlying Stuxnet exploit amounted to a “search-and-destroy weapon” built to take out Iran’s Bushehr nuclear reactor.

SCADA software often runs on extremely old systems that are difficult to replace without causing disruptions to critical equipment. As a result, installing patches and upgrades is frequently avoided despite the obvious security benefits.

Most of the bugs are quite serious too, not just DoS attacks or simple information disclosure. The majority actually lead to code execution and are able to be exploited remotely to any of these SCADA systems that are connection to an Internet enabled LAN.

What’s worse is SCADA systems rate way lower than IT systems in terms of budget for audits and security, there are very few people with in-depth knowledge in SCADA security and in general people don’t really seem interested in it.

With the scary flip side being, the SCADA systems control MUCH more important equipment than any of the IT systems do. It’ll be interesting to see if any of these companies issue statement and fixes for the software and perhaps carry out some proper audits.

Of course issuing guidelines on setting up SCADA systems in a secure manner would be useful too.

Source: The Register

Learn about Exploits/Vulnerabilities



Posted in: Exploits/Vulnerabilities, Hardware Hacking

Topic: Exploits/Vulnerabilities, Hardware Hacking

Latest Posts:


AWSBucketDump - AWS S3 Security Scanning Tool AWSBucketDump – AWS S3 Security Scanning Tool
AWSBucketDump is an AWS S3 Security Scanning Tool, which allows you to quickly enumerate AWS S3 buckets to look for interesting or confidential files.
nbtscan Download - NetBIOS Scanner For Windows & Linux nbtscan Download – NetBIOS Scanner For Windows & Linux
nbtscan is a command-line NetBIOS scanner for Windows that is SUPER fast, it scans for open NetBIOS nameservers on a local or remote TCP/IP network.
Equifax Data Breach - Hack Due To Missed Apache Patch Equifax Data Breach – Hack Due To Missed Apache Patch
The Equifax data breach is pretty huge with 143 million records leaked from the hack in the US alone with unknown more in Canada and the UK.
Seth - RDP Man In The Middle Attack Tool Seth – RDP Man In The Middle Attack Tool
Seth is an RDP Man In The Middle attack tool written in Python to MiTM RDP connections by attempting to downgrade the connection to extract clear text creds
dcrawl - Web Crawler For Unique Domains dcrawl – Web Crawler For Unique Domains
dcrawl is a simple, but smart, multithreaded web crawler for randomly gathering huge lists of unique domain names. It will branch out indefinitely.
Time Warner Hacked - AWS Config Exposes 4M Subscribers Time Warner Hacked – AWS Config Exposes 4M Subscribers
What's the latest on the web, Time Warner Hacked is what it's about now as a bad AWS S3 config (once again) exposes the details of approximately 4M subs.


Smooth-Sec – All In One Pre-Configured IDS/IPS System

Keep on Guard!


Smooth-Sec is a ready to-go IDS/IPS (Intrusion Detection/Prevention System) Linux distribution based on the multi threaded Suricata IDS/IPS engine and Snorby, the top notch web application for network security monitoring. Smooth-Sec is built on Ubuntu 10.04 LTS using the TurnKey Core base as development platform.

Functionality is the key point that allows a user to deploy a complete IDS/IPS System up and running out of the box within a few minutes, even for security beginners with minimal Linux experience.

Features

Snorby

  • Metrics Metrics & Reports
  • Classifications
  • Full packet and session data.
  • Settings Custom Settings
  • Hotkeys

Suricata


  • Native IPv6 Support
  • Automatic protocol detection
  • Multi threaded
  • Native hardware acceleration support
  • Passive OS and Portscan detection
  • L7 Protocol awareness
  • IP Reputation using scoring threshold
  • Distributed blocking & feedback
  • Global flowbits and variables

Details

Snorby login:

Snorby interface: https://ipaddress
Username: snorby@snorby.org
Password: snorby (please change this password after the firts login)

Ssh login:

Username: root
Password: the password you have chose during the installation

You can download Smooth-Sec here:

SmoothSec-1.1.iso

Or read more here.

Learn about Countermeasures



Posted in: Countermeasures, Networking Hacking, Security Software

Topic: Countermeasures, Networking Hacking, Security Software

Latest Posts:


AWSBucketDump - AWS S3 Security Scanning Tool AWSBucketDump – AWS S3 Security Scanning Tool
AWSBucketDump is an AWS S3 Security Scanning Tool, which allows you to quickly enumerate AWS S3 buckets to look for interesting or confidential files.
nbtscan Download - NetBIOS Scanner For Windows & Linux nbtscan Download – NetBIOS Scanner For Windows & Linux
nbtscan is a command-line NetBIOS scanner for Windows that is SUPER fast, it scans for open NetBIOS nameservers on a local or remote TCP/IP network.
Equifax Data Breach - Hack Due To Missed Apache Patch Equifax Data Breach – Hack Due To Missed Apache Patch
The Equifax data breach is pretty huge with 143 million records leaked from the hack in the US alone with unknown more in Canada and the UK.
Seth - RDP Man In The Middle Attack Tool Seth – RDP Man In The Middle Attack Tool
Seth is an RDP Man In The Middle attack tool written in Python to MiTM RDP connections by attempting to downgrade the connection to extract clear text creds
dcrawl - Web Crawler For Unique Domains dcrawl – Web Crawler For Unique Domains
dcrawl is a simple, but smart, multithreaded web crawler for randomly gathering huge lists of unique domain names. It will branch out indefinitely.
Time Warner Hacked - AWS Config Exposes 4M Subscribers Time Warner Hacked – AWS Config Exposes 4M Subscribers
What's the latest on the web, Time Warner Hacked is what it's about now as a bad AWS S3 config (once again) exposes the details of approximately 4M subs.