Archive | March, 2007

Huge Online Loss by Swedish Bank Nordea – Claimed to be Biggest Loss?

Outsmart Malicious Hackers


A massive online heist, some (like McAfee) claim it’s the biggest ever online sting involving a bank, it’s comes in at about half a million pounds or or $1.1 million USD.

Using some l33t0 custom trojan, it seems to be more a case of lack of education and the whole situation could have been avoided by using 2 factor authentication such as hardware tokens or SMS verification.

Swedish bank Nordea has told ZDNet UK that it has been stung for between seven and eight million Swedish krona “up to £580,000” in what security company McAfee is describing as the “biggest ever” online bank heist.

Over the last 15 months, Nordea customers have been targeted by emails containing a tailormade Trojan, said the bank.

Nordea believes that 250 customers have been affected by the fraud, after falling victim to phishing emails containing the Trojan. According to McAfee, Swedish police believe Russian organised criminals are behind the attacks. Currently, 121 people are suspected of being involved.

If it’s a custom trojan I don’t see how anti-viral software would have helped, but then…executives and corporates tend to talk a lot of crap when it comes to technical issues.

Nordea spokesman for Sweden, Boo Ehlin, said that most of the home users affected had not been running antivirus on their computers. The bank has borne the brunt of the attacks, and has refunded all the affected customers.

Ehlin blamed successful social engineering for the heist, rather than any deficiencies in Nordea security procedures.

“It is more of an information rather than a security problem,” said Ehlin. “Codes are a very important thing. Our customers have been cheated into giving out the keys to our security, which they gave in good faith.”

As always just be wary, no point preaching here as the people reading this site know not to open random executables sent from anywhere unless they are signed and md5 hashed ;)

Source: Zdnet UK

Posted in: Hacking News, Malware, Privacy, Social Engineering

Topic: Hacking News, Malware, Privacy, Social Engineering


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PwdHash from Stanford – Generate Passwords by Hashing the URL

Keep on Guard!


The Common Password Problem.

Users tend to use a single password at many different web sites. By now there are several reported cases where attackers breaks into a low security site to retrieve thousands of username/password pairs and directly try them one by one at a high security e-commerce site such as eBay. As expected, this attack is remarkably effective.

A Simple Solution.

PwdHash is an browser extension that transparently converts a user’s password into a domain-specific password. The user can activate this hashing by choosing passwords that start with a special prefix (@@) or by pressing a special password key (F2). PwdHash automatically replaces the contents of these password fields with a one-way hash of the pair (password, domain-name).

As a result, the site only sees a domain-specific hash of the password, as opposed to the password itself. A break-in at a low security site exposes password hashes rather than an actual password. We emphasize that the hash function we use is public and can be computed on any machine which enables users to login to their web accounts from any machine in the world. Hashing is done using a Pseudo Random Function (PRF).

Phishing protection.

A major benefit of PwdHash is that it provides a defense against password phishing scams. In a phishing scam, users are directed to a spoof web site where they are asked to enter their username and password. SpoofGuard is a browser extension that alerts the user when a phishing page is encountered.

PwdHash complements SpoofGuard in defending users from phishng scams: using PwdHash the phisher only sees a hash of the password specific to the domain hosting the spoof page. This hash is useless at the site that the phisher intended to spoof.

You can find the PwdHash extension for Firefox here:

https://addons.mozilla.org/firefox/1033/

More info is available on the Stanford PwdHash site here:

Stanford PwdHash

Posted in: Countermeasures, Password Cracking, Security Software

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Blue-Ray DRM Cracked Already?

Keep on Guard!


It didn’t take them long! A while ago some smart chaps worked out the a way to extract the HD DVD and Blu-ray Disc “volume keys” to decrypt AACS DRM on individual films (This was about 2 months ago).

Now they have cracked the scheme behind it, the so called “processing key” used to decrypt the DRM on all HD DVD and Blu-ray Disc films.

The copy protection technology used by Blu-ray discs has been cracked by the same hacker who broke the DRM technology of rival HD DVD discs last month. The coder known as muslix64 used much the same plain text attack in both cases. By reading a key held in memory by a player playing a HD DVD disc he was able to decrypt the movie been played and render it as an MPEG 2 file.

The latest Blu-ray hack was performed by muslix64 using a media file provided by Janvitos, through the video resource site Doom9, and applied to a Blu-ray copy of the movie Lord of War. In this case, muslix64 didn’t even need access to a Blu-ray player to nobble the DRM protection included on the title.

Nice eh, the guy doesn’t even HAVE a Blu-ray drive or player, yet he still managed to crack the screen by playing from a Blu-ray image file!

These DRM guys better buck up their ideas as they are getting owned all over the place, remember when the DVD encryption was cracked in a similar way, by Xing-Mpeg player keeping the key in plain text in memory.

Both HD DVD and Blu-ray use HDCP (High-Bandwidth Digital Content Protection) for playback display authentication and similar implementations of AACS (Advanced Access Content System) for content encryption.

The hack sidesteps, rather than defeats, the AACS encryption used as part of the content protection technology used by both next-generation DVD formats. The approach relies on obtaining a particular movie’s unique “key” and can’t therefore be trivially replicated to rip content across all titles encoded via a particular format, as tools like DVD Decryptor make easy with standard DVD titles.

muslix64 has however posted a 18KB tool that allows other to try their hand at extracting the keys of other Blu-ray Disc movies

Source: The Register

Posted in: Hacking News, Legal Issues

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PReplay – A pcap Network Traffic Replay Tool for Windows

Keep on Guard!


There are not many good tools for replaying traffic, most people use WireShark (formely known as Ethereal) for capturing the traffic, but what happens if you want to take that capture and reply it over the wire?

Someone has this problem so they decided to code their own solution, thankfully for us! There are quite a few tools to do this for *nix based systems but none for Windows, so here we go, a traffic replay tool for the Windows platform!

PReplay is a utility to replay captured data over the network, its main feature is that it will record the time difference between two packets (not very accurately but it works for micro/millisecond difference) it reads the capture file and then determines the time difference for the next packet.

You can give list of capture file which you want to send in the Preplay.ini in the [SendingFileName] section as below:

Semicolon (;) is used for commenting a line you don’t want the program to read, so you can
comment out the file name which you don’t want to send like this:


It will not send 2nd file.

SendingFilePath, here you can specify the directory which contains the captured files.

You can download PReplay here:

preplay.zip

This is version 1.1 which has a few fixes such as the ability to change the MAC and IP address of the gateway and client machine.

Posted in: Hacking Tools, Networking Hacking, Security Software, Windows Hacking

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Microsoft’s Live OneCare the WORST Anti-Virus Solution

Outsmart Malicious Hackers


An Austrian web site called AV Comparatives has done an ‘independent‘ test of 17 different Anti-Virus products and released the results online.

On this site you will find independent comparatives of Anti-Virus software. All products listed in our comparatives are already a selection of some very good anti-virus products. In order to get tested by us, companies must fulfill various conditions and minimum requirements.

Several free AV products were included, you can find the test here:

http://www.av-comparatives.org/

Navigate to ‘Comparatives – On-demand comparative / February 2007’

Microsoft’s Live OneCare was the only product receiving “Standard” level results detecting a fairly low 82.40% percent of malware.

The ‘winners’ were AntiVirusKit (AVK) with 99.45% and TrustPort AV WS with 99.36%.

Most seemed to score 96-97% detection with another group around 93%.

You can see many reports and results here:

AV Comparative

You can find additional in depth reports and details here.

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WordPress Download Server Compromised (2.1.1) – Get 2.1.2 NOW!

Outsmart Malicious Hackers


Some sneaky hacker got into the WordPress download server and placed a backdoor in the latest available version (2.1.1).

Luckily within a day someone reported the exploit to the WordPress team and they took the site down to investigate.

This morning we received a note to our security mailing address about unusual and highly exploitable code in WordPress. The issue was investigated, and it appeared that the 2.1.1 download had been modified from its original code. We took the website down immediately to investigate what happened.

If you downloaded 2.1.1 as soon as it came out it should be ok, but a few days after that the compromised version was available.

Do install 2.1.2 and upgrade ASAP just to be safe.

If your blog is running 2.1.1, please upgrade immediately and do a full overwrite of your old files, especially those in wp-includes. Check out your friends blogs and if any of them are running 2.1.1 drop them a note and, if you can, pitch in and help them with the upgrade.

If you are a web host or network administrator, block access to “theme.php” and “feed.php”, and any query string with “ix=” or “iz=” in it. If you’re a customer at a web host, you may want to send them a note to let them know about this release and the above information.

I’m thankful that the WordPress team has dealt with this situation so efficiently and professionally and it just gives me more faith in their team.

Good job WordPress!

Do make sure you let anyone using 2.1.1 know about this so they can upgrade ASAP.

This is just another lesson on why it’s important to check the md5 sum of files before using them..

Source: WordPress.org

Posted in: Exploits/Vulnerabilities, Hacking News, Web Hacking

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