Darknet - The Darkside

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16 November 2013 | 3,224 views

Linux Backdoor Fokirtor Injects Traffic Into SSH Protocol

Prevent Network Security Leaks with Acunetix

Earlier this week we wrote about an Internet Explorer 0-day which used an in-memory drive by attack, which was pretty smart. Now another new type of malware (a backdoor in this case), this time targeting Linux known as Fokirtor.

There is no real discussion of the exploit used to plant this backdoor (if it was an exploit, there are other channels), but the way it operates is pretty interesting and certainly nothing I’ve seen before.

Security researchers have discovered a Linux backdoor that uses a covert communication protocol to disguise its presence on compromised systems.

The malware ‪was used in an attack on a large (unnamed) hosting provider ‬back in May. It cleverly attempted to avoid setting off any alarm bells by injecting its own communications into legitimate traffic, specifically SSH chatter. SSH is a protocol commonly used to access shell accounts on Unix-like operating systems, a continuous activity for remote administration of websites.

The unknown cybercrooks or cyberspies behind that attack apparently targeted customer record information such as usernames, emails, and passwords using the subtle and stealthy malware, according to an analysis of the backdoor by security researchers at Symantec.

In addition, the malware made use of the Blowfish encryption algorithm to encrypt uploads of stolen data or other communications with a command-and-control network.

It’s a pretty interesting method, assuming most Linux servers do have SSH enabled (which they do tend to) – it enables attackers to communicate covertly without setting off any alarms. The part I find really interesting is that the malware uses a pretty serious encryption algorithm (Blowfish), rather than the average backdoor or trojan which just uses XOR or Base64 encoding.

The conspiracists amongst us will likely find this pointing to governmental involvement in the development of this backdoor.

The attackers understood the target environment was generally well-protected. In particular, the attackers needed a means to avoid suspicious network traffic or installed files, which may have triggered a security review. Demonstrating sophistication, the attackers devised their own stealthy Linux backdoor to camouflage itself within the Secure Shell (SSH) and other server processes.
This backdoor allowed an attacker to perform the usual functionality — such as executing remote commands — however, the backdoor did not open a network socket or attempt to connect to a command-and-control server (C&C). Rather, the backdoor code was injected into the SSH process to monitor network traffic and look for the following sequence of characters: colon, exclamation mark, semi-colon, period (“:!;.”).

After seeing this pattern, the back door would parse the rest of the traffic and then extract commands which had been encrypted with Blowfish and Base64 encoded.

Most sources mark this threat as pretty low, and it hasn’t been seen much – so it may have been a very targeted attack and some speculate it may be something to do with the GCHQ/Belgacom case.

It’ll be interesting to see if Fokirtor is found anywhere else, there is some very basic information about it from Symantec here: Linux.Fokirtor and a little more here Linux Back Door Uses Covert Communication Protocol.

In some ways it reminds me of pork knocking – fwknop – Port Knocking Tool with Single Packet Authorization.

Source: The Register



13 November 2013 | 4,267 views

hashcat – Multi-Threaded Password Hash Cracking Tool

hashcat claims to be the world’s fastest CPU-based password recovery tool, while not as fast as GPU powered hash brute forcing (like CUDA-Multiforcer), it is still pretty fast.

hashcat was written somewhere in the middle of 2009. Yes, there were already close-to-perfect working tools supporting rule-based attacks like “PasswordsPro”, “John The Ripper”. However for some unknown reason, both of them did not support multi-threading. That was the only reason to write hashcat: To make use of the multiple cores of modern CPUs.

Granted, that was not 100% correct. John the Ripper already supported MPI using a patch, but at that time it worked only for Brute-Force attack. There was no solution available to crack plain MD5 which supports MPI using rule-based attacks.

Hashcat, from its first version, v0.01, was called “atomcrack”. This version was very poor, but at least the MD5 kernel was written in assembler utilizing SSE2 instructions and of course it was multi-threaded. It was a simple dictionary cracker, nothing more. But it was fast. Really fast. Some guys from the scene become interested in it and after one week there were around 10 beta testers. Everything worked fine and so requests for more algorithm types, a rule-engine for mutation of dictionaries, a windows version and different attack modes were added. These developments took around half a year, and were completely non-public.

hashcat - multi-thread password cracker

Features

  • Multi-Threaded
  • Multi-Hash (up to 24 million hashes)
  • Multi-OS (Linux, Windows and OSX native binaries)
  • Multi-Algo (MD4, MD5, SHA1, DCC, NTLM, MySQL, …)
  • SSE2, AVX and XOP accelerated
  • All Attack-Modes except Brute-Force and Permutation can be extended by rules
  • Very fast Rule-engine
  • Rules compatible with JTR and PasswordsPro
  • Possible to resume or limit session
  • Automatically recognizes recovered hashes from outfile at startup
  • Can automatically generate random rules
  • Load saltlist from external file and then use them in a Brute-Force Attack variant
  • Able to work in an distributed environment
  • Specify multiple wordlists or multiple directories of wordlists
  • Number of threads can be configured
  • Threads run on lowest priority
  • Supports hex-charset
  • Supports hex-salt
  • 80+ Algorithms implemented with performance in mind

You can download hashcat here:

hashcat-0.46.7z

Detailed documentation and command line switches can be found here – hashcat.

Or read more here.


12 November 2013 | 1,412 views

Another IE 0-Day Hole Found & Used By In-Memory Drive By Attacks

So another IE 0-Day has been uncovered, and is in use in the wild for drive-by attacks on unwitting web users. I have to say, technically speaking, this attack is rather impressive – in terms of the exploit, the delivery method and the way that it runs.

It retrieves the PE headers from a DLL then returns a specific version of the exploit to the DLL file, after that it doesn’t ever write to the disk and only executes in memory directly. This makes it extremely hard for anti-virus scanners to spot it.

The down-side is the attacks lose the persistence aspect, as if the infected user reboots their machine – the malware code is basically gone.

Security researchers have discovered new zero-day vulnerabilities in Internet Explorer that are already being harnessed by hackers to run a new type of drive-by attack.

FireEye, the security firm that discovered the attack method, said that the flaw is present in various versions of Internet Explorer 7, 8, 9 and 10, while running Windows XP or Windows 7.

“The exploit leverages a new information leakage vulnerability and an IE out-of-bounds memory access vulnerability to achieve code execution,” FireEye explains. “It is one vulnerability being exploited in various different ways.”

The IE flaw is unpatched and separate from the TIFF image-handling zero-day vulnerability that surfaced late last month – which is also under active attack.

Malware slung via the latest exploit is designed to load directly into the memory of victimised Windows PC, bypassing the hard drive. The tactic makes it harder for antivirus software or similar security tools to detect and block the attack.

The attackers are probably under the assumption that the same user will probably visit the same site again, and get reinfected – even after a reboot. The exploit also contains a large multi-stage shellcode payload, to avoid downloading further code (and thus writing to the disk).

In terms of forensics, this also makes it extremely hard to identify infected endpoints as the malware running in memory only leaves little to no artifacts.

However, simply rebooting compromised machines would appear to remove them from the botnet, so what this new type of attack gains in stealth, it loses in persistence. FireEye posits that “the use of this non-persistent first stage may suggest that the attackers were confident that their intended targets would simply revisit the compromised website and be[come] re-infected”.

One of the sites spreading the exploit covers national and international security policy, according to FireEye. This, and other instances of the attack method, make it more than likely we are looking at some type of state-backed cyber-espionage campaign, it says.

The infrastructure used in the attack shares similarities with the earlier Operation DeputyDog assaults against targets in Japan and China, claims FireEye. The same hacking crew is suspected of involvement in a high profile hack against whitelisting firm Bit9.

If anything, the latest assaults are even more sophisticated.

More stuff you can read about if you are interested in this topic:

- Return-oriented programming
- APT – Advanced Persistent Threat

You can find the original info and blog post here:

New IE Zero-Day Found in Watering Hole Attack

And a very technical look at the techniques used here:

Operation Ephemeral Hydra: IE Zero-Day Linked to DeputyDog Uses Diskless Method

Source: The Register


06 November 2013 | 2,104 views

aidSQL – PHP Application For SQL Injection Detection & Exploitation

aidSQL a PHP application provided for detecting security holes in your website/s. It’s a modular application, meaning that you can develop your very own plugins for SQL injection detection & exploitation.

The tool provides pen-testing capabilities for MS-SQL 2000, MySQL 5 and the author promises to add Oracle 10g support – but that doesn’t seem to be happening.

You can view a demo of the app here:

The output from Wavsep for aidSQL can also be seen here:

aidSQL vs Wavsep

You can download aidSQL here:

aidsql-devel-20130527.tgz

Or read more here.


04 November 2013 | 843 views

Anonymous Targets Singapore For Proposed Internet Licensing Rules

So the latest news in South East Asia is that someone claiming to be affiliated with Anonymous is waging a digital war against Singapore due to their proposed Internet licensing rules, which are akin to backdoor censorship.

You can see the Youtube video here:

The Anonymous Legion Threatens Singapore Government

They already started by attacking one of the major Singaporean newspapers, the Straits Times – which was successfully defaced.

Straits Times Hacked by Anonymous

The full protest and expected action by Anonymous should take place tomorrow, November 5th – the day synonymous with Guy Fawkes.

A hacktivist claiming to be part of Anonymous has backed a call by Google, Facebook and others to scrap proposed internet licensing rules in Singapore which have been described as state censorship by the back door.

In a YouTube video, the figure argues that “no government has the right to deprive their citizens the freedom of information”, and calls on “fellow Singaporean brothers and sisters” to protest on 5 November if the licensing proposals aren’t binned.

The hacktivist, who goes by the name ‘The Messiah’, has already been at work, defacing a web page of Singaporean newspaper The Straits Times with the message: “Dear ST: You just got hacked for misleading the people!”

It seems The Messiah wasn’t happy with the way the paper reported the video, after it “chose to conveniently modify the sentence ‘war against the Singapore Government’ into ‘war against Singapore’.”

The new Licensing Regime, which was revealed earlier this year by the Singaporean government, will require online news sites reporting on the city state to put up a “performance bond” of S$50,000 and “comply within 24 hours to MDA’s directions to remove content that is found to be in breach of content standards”.

It’ll be interesting to see if they target more corporations or governmental organizations, the media in Singapore lies somewhere between the two – with the majority of the mainstream media being owned in part or somehow controlled by the government.

The licensing scheme seems to be some kind of effort to control the smaller or so called ‘independent’ or ‘alternative’ news outlets online, which do cause a lot of problems in oppressive countries.

Singapore’s government, which has been formed by the same party for over 50 years, either directly or indirectly owns traditional media. The new rules have therefore been seen as an attempt to bring to heel foreign owned and independent sites which locals read for less-likely-to-be-sanitised news.

The licensing proposals have already garnered strong opposition. Over 130 Singaporean web sites blacked out their home pages in June and activists attended a #FreeMyInternet rally in the city state’s Hong Lim park.

The Asia Internet Coalition, which lists Google, Facebook, Yahoo and others among its members, has also been highly critical.

The coalition wrote in an open letter to communications minister Yaacob Ibrahim in July that the proposed rules “could unintentionally hamper Singapore’s ability to continue to drive innovation, develop key industries in the technology space and attract investment”.

Despite its façade as a shiny, modern Asian nation, Singapore ranks a lowly 149th on Reporters Without Borders’ Press Freedom Index 2013, sandwiched by Iraq and Russia.

Singapore already ranks extremely lowly in the press freedom index, and this move, if successful, is likely to push it even lower. Singapore as a whole is known as being a pretty tech-forward and Internet savvy nation, so it’ll be interesting to see how tight their cyber-security is and if Anonymous can make any serious in-roads.

As always we shall wait and see.

Source: The Register


30 October 2013 | 3,405 views

FoxOne Free OSINT Tool – Server Reconnaissance Scanner

FoxOne is a free OSINT tool, described by the author (th3j35t3r) as a Non-Invasive and Non-Detectable Server Reconnaissance Scanner.

Bypassing API limitations and currently detecting 6500+ vulnerable server paths/files – without ever touching the target server. Very good for getting hold of intel on a given domain (example.com). The intel gained serves both as actionable in the sense that it could be directly used to help root a box, while at the same time giving a good overview of stuff thats present on the box and where it is within the directory structure.

FoxOne Scanner creates a report and dumps it on your Desktop.

Features

  • Anti False-Positive Measures
  • Bot Stealth Measures
  • Modular Framework for easy importing of new modules.

Requirements

  • MySQL Server
  • PHP5
  • PHP-GD Library
  • PHP-MySQL
  • Festival (text to speech)

Installation

1). Create a MySQL database anywhere (localhost is fine).
2). Import ‘foxone.sql’ into the database you just created.
3). Edit ‘foxone’ adding the details of the database you just setup.

You can download FoxOne Scanner here:

foxone.zip


28 October 2013 | 1,491 views

Major Adobe Hack – Acrobat & ColdFusion Source Code Leaked

So earlier this month there was a major Adobe hack and the source code for a couple of it’s mainstream products (Acrobat Reader, ColdFusion and ColdFusion Builder) was leaked and downloaded, most likely in it’s entirety.

There was a bit of a panic surrounding this as the software is used by a lot of major governmental agencies (especially in the US), and it’s feared that when someone with malicious intent has access to your source code – they are more likely to be able to find previously undiscovered vulnerabilities.

The attack also leaked 2.9 million customer records including names and credit card numbers, so much for Adobe doing cloud right.

Adobe’s systems have been hit by numerous “sophisticated attacks” that have compromised the information of 2.9 million customers, and accessed the source code of Adobe products.

The company said on Thursday that it has been the victim of a major cyberattack and said hackers had accessed those millions of customer IDs and encrypted passwords.

“We also believe the attackers removed from our systems certain information relating to 2.9 million Adobe customers, including customer names, encrypted credit or debit card numbers, expiration dates, and other information relating to customer orders,” the company said.

It does not believe decrypted credit or debit card numbers were accessed.

“As a precaution, we are resetting relevant customer passwords to help prevent unauthorized access to Adobe ID accounts. If your user ID and password were involved, you will receive an email notification from us with information on how to change your password,” the company wrote.

The company says people should change their passwords on any other website where they have used the same user ID and password. But you’d do that anyway, wouldn’t you?

Now whilst that studying the source code may give you some advantages, Acrobat for example has over 13 million lines of code – so you’d basically looking for a needle in a haystack.

Also the fact the software has a bunch of security measures built in like address space layout randomization (ASLR), a sandbox (which logically separates any opened PDF file), and the broker process (basically a firewall between the process and system calls) – means even if you do find a vulnerabilty, crafting an exploit from it is going to be really hard.

We haven’t as yet seen any zero day exploits that could have come from the compromise, but it doesn’t mean they aren’t out there – or being used for targeted attacks/cyberterrorism.

It is “in the process” of notifying customers whose credit or debit data may have been stolen, and is offering them condolence in the form of a “one-year complimentary credit monitoring membership where available.”

Where we come from, that’s called offering free stable doors after the horses have bolted.

The company has also contacted federal law enforcement officials and notified banks that process customer payments for Adobe.

Hackers have also accessed the source code for the company’s Adobe Acrobat, ColdFusion, ColdFusion Builder, and other unnamed products, the company said in a separate blog post.

Security firm Hold Security claims to have found 40 gigabytes in encrypted archives on a hacker’s server, apparently containing source code on some of Adobe’s biggest products.

“This breach poses a serious concern to countless businesses and individuals,” Hold Security wrote. “Effectively, this breach may have opened a gateway for new generation of viruses, malware, and exploits.”

You can see the original posts by Adobe here – Important Customer Security Announcement & Illegal Access to Adobe Source Code.

We’ll have to wait and see if anything actually comes from it. There were a few nasty compromised earlier this year that were ColdFusion based, such as Linode & NW3C.

Although I don’t really think they are related, it just happens that ColdFusion servers are very frequently setup without all the extra security controls that Adobe provides being enabled.

Source: The Register


16 October 2013 | 2,232 views

AxCrypt – Open Source Windows File Encryption Software

AxCrypt is the leading open source Windows file encryption software. It integrates seamlessly with Windows to compress, encrypt, decrypt, store, send and work with individual files.

Personal Privacy and Security with AES-128 File Encryption and Compression for Windows 2000/2003/XP/Vista/2008/7. Double-click to automatically decrypt and open documents. Store strong keys on removable USB-devices.

Features

  • Password Protect any number of files using strong encryption.
  • Right-click integration with Windows Explorer makes AxCrypt the easiest way to encrypt individual files in Windows.
  • Double-click integration makes it as easy to open, edit and save protected files as it is to work with unprotected files.
  • Many additional features, but no configuration required. Just install it and use it.
  • AxCrypt encrypts files that are safely and easily sent to other users via e-mail or any other means. Self-decrypting files are also supported, removing the need to install AxCrypt to decrypt.
  • AxCrypt is translated into English, Danish, Dutch, French, German, Hungarian, Italian, Norwegian, Russian, Polish, Spanish and Swedish so chances are it speaks your preferred language.

AxCrypt is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation.

You can download AxCrypt here:

AxCrypt-1.7.2976.0-Setup.exe

Or read more here.


10 October 2013 | 1,251 views

AVG, Avira and WhatsApp Websites DNS Jacked By Pro-Palestinian Hacktivists

There’s been a spate of these type of attacks this year, it seems like hackers are realizing the target servers and sites are pretty secure – so they are looking for other avenues to deface or spread their political messages.

DNS security has been overlooked for a long time, with most companies not using DNSSEC or any real protective measures. With DNS being such a critical service, this is rather worrying, as a tainted DNS record enables a hacker to take over an entire domain.

The websites of freebie antivirus vendors AVG and Avira as well as mobile messaging service WhatsApp appear to have been hit by a DNS redirection attack today which sent users to pro-Palestinian websites.

A team of hacktivists calling themselves KDMS have claimed credit for the hacks.

Visitors to avg.com were greeted by a rendition of the Palestinian national anthem (via an embedded YouTube video) and a message from a pro-Palestinian group calling itself the KDMS Team, instead of the usual security tips and links to anti-malware downloads.

“It’s clearly embarrassing for a security company to be hit in this fashion by hackers, but there is no indication that any customer information or sensitive data has been compromised,” writes Graham Cluley, a veteran of the antivirus industry turned independent security consultant. “It’s possible that the hackers managed to change the website’s DNS records, redirecting anyone who attempted to visit www.avg.com to a different IP address.”

It seems all 3 companies used Network Solutions as their DNS provider, so the flaw clearly lay there – what exactly happened hasn’t been disclosed (and honestly is unlikely to be disclosed).

The bad thing about DNS as well, is it takes time to change and propagate. So those people using ISPs that have aggressive DNS caching, might be seeing the hacked sites for quite some time.

Security experts were quick to discover that all three victims use hosting biz Network Solutions as their DNS provider. Hackers may have exploited security shortcomings at Network Solutions to alter DNS records and so gain control of their targets’ domains.

The KDMS team claims an affiliation with Anonymous Palestine. The same group pulled off a similar DNS hijack / redirection attack against the website of hosting firm leaseweb.com over the weekend.

LeaseWeb’s statement on the attack can be found here.

Leaseweb denied earlier reports that a vulnerability in its WHMCS billing and support system software might have been responsible for the hijack, but without naming a cause. The hosting firm is seeking to play down the significance of the attack, which it characterises as regrettable but superficial and quickly resolved.

You can also read more and see a screenshot of the hack at Graham Cluley’s blog here:

AVG and Avira anti-virus websites attacked by pro-Palestinian hackers

Let’s see if we see any more of these kind of attacks soon.

Source: The Register


07 October 2013 | 3,519 views

Mutillidae – Vulnerable Web-Application To Learn Web Hacking

OWASP Mutillidae II is a free, open source, deliberately vulnerable web-application providing a target for web-security enthusiest to learn web hacking. Mutillidae can be installed on Linux and Windows using LAMP, WAMP, and XAMMP for users who do not want to administrate a webserver. It is pre-installed on SamuraiWTF, Rapid7 Metasploitable-2, and OWASP BWA. The existing version can be updated on pre-installed platforms. With dozens of vulns and hints to help the user; this is an easy-to-use web hacking environment designed for labs, security enthusiast, classrooms, CTF, and vulnerability assessment tool targets. Mutillidae has been used in graduate security courses, corporate web sec training courses, and as an “assess the assessor” target for vulnerability assessment software.

Features

  • Has over 35 vulnerablities and challenges. Contains at least one vulnearbility for each of the OWASP Top Ten 2007 and 2010
  • Actually Vulnerable (User not asked to enter “magic” statement)
  • Mutillidae can be installed on Linux, Windows XP, and Windows 7 using XAMMP making it easy for users who do not want to install or administrate their own webserver. Mutillidae is confirmed to work on XAMPP, WAMP, and LAMP. XAMPP is the “default” deployment.
  • Installs easily by dropping project files into the “htdocs” folder of XAMPP.
  • Will attempt to detect if the MySQL database is available for the user
  • Preinstalled on Rapid7 Metasploitable 2, Samurai Web Testing Framework (WTF), and OWASP Broken Web Apps (BWA)
  • Contains 2 levels of hints to help users get started
  • Includes bubble-hints to help point out vulnerable locations
  • Bubble-hints automatically give more information as hint level incremented
  • System can be restored to default with single-click of “Setup” button
  • User can switch between secure and insecure modes
  • Secure and insecure source code for each page stored in the same PHP file for easy comparison
  • Provides data capture page and stores captured data in database and file
  • Allows SSL to be enforced in order to practice SSL stripping
  • Used in graduate security courses, in corporate web sec training courses, and as an “assess the assessor” target for vulnerability software
  • Mutillidae has been tested/attacked with Cenzic Hailstorm ARC, W3AF, SQLMAP, Samurai WTF, Backtrack, HP Web Inspect, Burp-Suite, NetSparker Community Edition, and other tools

There’s quite a choice of these apps out there now, so if you’re trying to learn web hacking, or just hone your penetration testing skills, check the list here:

Vulnerable Web Application

You can download Mutillidae here:

LATEST-mutillidae-2.6.4.zip

Or read more here.