Archive | August, 2009

Mac OS X Snow Leopard Bundled With Malware Detector

Don't let your data go over to the Dark Side!


Ah we saw this coming didn’t we, back in June we reported on Apple Struggling With Security & Malware and now they have shown they were paying attention.

Even though they tried to do so quietly, they are slipping a ‘malware detector’ into the latest OS X update known as Snow Leopard.

The problem is though, it only scans for two trojans? Seems a bit pointless to me.

Although Mac OS X is considered by many to be the most secure operating system available to end users, it does suffer from security issues. Perhaps the new malware detector in Apple’s new Mac OS X Snow Leopard release will help prove that.

Mac OS X is viewed by many as the most secure operating system on the market. It’s certainly considered far more secure than Microsoft’s Windows operating system.

But with a report hitting the wire Wednesday claiming Apple’s new Mac OS X release, Snow Leopard, will feature a malware-detection tool, some of those beliefs might be put into question.

According to reports, Mac OS X will feature an application that will scan the user’s Mac for known trojans. It will also flag malicious files if they are downloaded from Safari, iChat, Entourage and a few other applications. There’s just one catch: that feature will only look for two trojans. Every other possibly damaging trojan will not be scanned for.

Only two trojans? Why not make it a full on malware scanner, or at least something a little more useful than a finite scanner.

I mean even Windows pushes their Malicious Software Removal Tool and I’m sure it scans for more than just two threats.

Either way it’s a step in the right direction and Apple are acknowledging their OS isn’t bullet proof and they need to do something to address that.

Over the past few months, we have seen several Mac OS X security issues hit the wire. From security outbreaks to an update that included several security fixes, it was becoming clear that Mac OS X’s reputation for strong security wasn’t as reliable as some believed. And if Mac OS X Snow Leopard does, in fact, feature that new malware detector, it could change everything. Just don’t expect Apple to change.

“The Mac is designed with built-in technologies that provide protection against malicious software and security threats right out of the box,” Apple wrote on the company’s Mac OS X Snow Leopard page. “However, since no system can be 100 percent immune from every threat, anti-virus software may offer additional protection.”

I’m a little shocked by that statement. Although Apple does admit that no system is totally immune from issues, it says anti-virus software “may” offer additional protection. I think that perpetuates the myth that end users don’t need to worry about Mac OS X security.

I think the landscape for Apple is changing, as they get more users in the marketplace they WILL be exposed to more threats.

And more people will have their fingers in the operating system trying to break it for fun and profit. With Mac machines being sold as lifestyle products you can bet the majority of Apple users aren’t very tech savvy.

You can’t really compare it to the Linux desktop market, but even then Linux does have anti-virus software available for free and commercially.

Source: eWeek


Posted in: Apple, Exploits/Vulnerabilities, Malware

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Trafscrambler – Anti-sniffer/IDS Tool

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Trafscrambler is an anti-sniffer/IDS LKM(Network Kernel Extension) for OSX, licensed under BSD.

Features

  • Injection of packets with bogus data and with randomly selected bad TCP cksum or bad TCP sequences
  • Userland binary(tsctrl) for controlling trafscrambler NKE
  • SYN decoy – sends out number of SYN pkts before the original SYN pkt
  • TCP reset attack – sends out RST/FIN pkt with bad sequence
  • Pre-connection SYN – sends out SYN with wrong TCP-checksum
  • Post-connection SYN – sends out fake SYN after connection establishment
  • Zero Window – send out pkt with “0” window set.

You can download Trafscrambler 0.2 here:

trafscrambler-0.2.tgz

Or read more here.


Posted in: Apple, Countermeasures, Forensics, Network Hacking

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TJX Hacker Albert “Segvec” Gonzalez Indicted By Federal Grand Jury

Cybertroopers storming your ship?


We’ve been following the whole TJX saga for quite some time now since way back in September 2007 when the hack became public as the Largest Breach of Customer Data in U.S. History and in August 2008 when the TJX Credit Card Hackers Got Busted.

The legal system has ticked along and now they have to stand up for their charges, which are spiraling as more and more cases are linked to them.

Albert “Segvec” Gonzalez has been indicted by a federal grand jury in New Jersey — along with two unnamed Russian conspirators — on charges of hacking into Heartland Payment Systems, the New Jersey-based card processing company, as well as Hannaford Brothers, 7-Eleven and two unnamed national retailers, according to the indictment unsealed Monday. Gonzalez, a former Secret Service informant, is already awaiting trial over his involvement in the TJX hack.

According to the court document, the hackers allegedly stole more than 130 million credit and debit card numbers (.pdf) from Heartland and Hannaford combined. Prosecutors say they believe these breaches constitute the largest data-breach and identity-theft case ever prosecuted in the United States. They’re investigating other breaches and have not ruled out Gonzalez’s involvement in even more intrusions.

“We’re not seeing a huge array of hackers capable of doing this, but rather a more select group, [and that] demonstrates that there is a level of sophistication involved in these hacks,” said Assistant U.S. Attorney Erez Liebermann of the Justice Department’s New Jersey district office.

As with most things, 80% of the damage is done by 20% of the people. I’d say in this case it’s more like 98% of the damage is done by 2% of the hackers only a few of which ever get caught.

I think these guys just got too greedy and went after too many targets, but then their credit card theft ring is called “Operation Get Rich or Die Tryin”. They aren’t likely to die, but they are likely to go down for a long time.

But these are just the latest in a string of high-profile breaches that have been connected to Gonzalez. He and 10 others were charged in May and August 2008 with network intrusions into TJX, OfficeMax, Dave & Busters restaurant chain and other companies. Jury selection is slated to begin Sept. 14 in one of those cases. With regard to the Heartland-Hannaford cases, Gonzalez and the two unnamed Russian hackers have been charged with one count of conspiracy to commit computer fraud and one count of conspiracy to commit wire fraud.

They each face a maximum penalty of five years in prison and a possible maximum fine of $250,000 on the computer-fraud count and an additional 30 years and $1 million fine on the wire-fraud count, or twice the amount they gained from the offense, whichever is greater.

Attorneys for Gonzalez were not available for comment.

According to the New Jersey indictment, Gonzalez, 28, and an uncharged conspirator identified only as “P.T.,” allegedly found their targets on a list of Fortune 500 companies and then did reconnaissance to determine the payment-processing systems they used and uncover vulnerabilities. The hackers used computers they leased or controlled in California, Illinois and New Jersey as well as in Latvia, Ukraine and the Netherlands to store malware, launch their attacks against the networks, and receive the stolen numbers.

If you tally up all the counts that could be one hell of a sentence, especially with the 30 years for the wire-fraud tacked on. I guess if they ever manage to get out of prison, they might get to enjoy the millions they have stolen.

That is assuming they’ve laundered it and stashed it safely somewhere outside the jurisdiction of a US federal investigation.

Either way it’s an interesting case and I’m sure there will be more news about it.

Source: Wired (Thanks Navin)


Posted in: General Hacking, Legal Issues, Privacy

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IKECrack – IKE/IPSec Authentication Cracking Tool

Don't let your data go over to the Dark Side!


IKECrack is an open source IKE/IPSec authentication crack tool. This tool is designed to bruteforce or dictionary attack the key/password used with Pre-Shared-Key [PSK] IKE authentication. The open source version of this tool is to demonstrate proof-of-concept, and will work with RFC 2409 based aggressive mode PSK authentication.

IKE Agressive Mode BruteForce Summary

Aggressive Mode IKE authentication is composed of the following steps:

  1. Initiating client sends encryption options proposal, DH public key, random number [nonce_i], and an ID in an un-encrypted packet to the gateway/responder.
  2. Responder creates a DH public value, another random number [nonce_r], and calculates a HASH that is sent back to the initiator in an un-encrypted packet. This hash is used to authenticate the parties to each other, and is based on the exchange nonces, DH public values, the initiator ID, other values from the initiator packet, and the Pre-Shared-Key [PSK].
  3. The Initiating client sends a reply packet also containing a HASH, but this response is normally sent in an encrypted packet.

IKECrack utilizies the HASH sent in step 2, and attempts a realtime bruteforce of the PSK. This involves a HMAC-MD5 of the PSK with nonce values to determine the SKEYID, and a HMAC-MD5 of the SKEYID with DH pubkeys, cookies, ID, and SA proposal. In practice, SKEYID and HASH_R are calculated with the Hash cipher proposed by the initiator, so could actually be either SHA1 or MD5 in HMAC mode.

Project Details

IKECrack utilizes components from the following OpenSource/PublicDomain programs:

  • MDCrack
  • Ron Rivest’s MD5
  • Simeon Pilgrim’s Reverse MD5
  • MD5 and HMAC-MD5 PerlMods
  • libpcap

Performance

Initial testing with Perl based IKECrack shows numbers of 18,000 tests per second with a PIII 700, and can bruteforce 3 chars of ucase/lcase/0-9 in 13 seconds.

MDCrack [a MD5 bruteforce tool] can achieve 1.5 million keys per second with pure MD5 and a PIII 700. PSK bruteforcing consists of 4 MD5’s, and 4 64 byte XORs….but should still be able to achieve 375,000 IKE keys per second. Preliminary tests in C have shown 26,000 keys per second with un-optimized routines. I’m hoping that Simeon Pilgrim’s MD5 routines will speed this up a bit more.

You can download IKECrack here:

ikecrack-snarf-1.00.pl

Or read more here.


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Serious Linux Kernel Vulnerability For ALL 2.4 & 2.6 Kernels

Don't let your data go over to the Dark Side!


This is a serious bug, it effects all Kernel versions released since May 2001! That goes all the way back to the early 2.4 versions.

It’s also exploitable according to the report – This issue is easily exploitable for local privilege escalation. In order to exploit this, an attacker would create a mapping at address zero containing code to be executed with privileges of the kernel (which I would assume to be root).

At least it only allows local priveledge escalation, if was a remote root exploit in the kernel..it would be a disaster.

Imagine all the Linux boxes out there connected to the net where the admin doesn’t update or read security resources.

Linux developers have issued a critical update for the open-source OS after researchers uncovered a vulnerability in its kernel that puts most versions built in the past eight years at risk of complete takeover.

The bug involves the way kernel-level routines such as sock_sendpage react when they are left unimplemented. Instead of linking to a corresponding placeholder, (for example, sock_no_accept), the function pointer is left uninitialized. Sock_sendpage doesn’t always validate the pointer before dereferencing it, leaving the OS open to local privilege escalation that can completely compromise the underlying machine.

“Since it leads to the kernel executing code at NULL, the vulnerability is as trivial as it can get to exploit,” security researcher Julien Tinnes writes here. “An attacker can just put code in the first page that will get executed with kernel privileges.”

A patch has been released, so if you have untrusted local users on your system UPDATE YOUR KERNEL NOW!

This is the second time this year there has been a serious exploit in the Linux Kernel, which in a way is good because it means people are looking at it critically.

The more bugs that get exposed, the more secure the Kernel and our operating systems become.

Tinnes and fellow researcher Tavis Ormandy released proof-of-concept code that they said took just a few minutes to adapt from a previous exploit they had. They said all 2.4 and 2.6 version since May 2001 are affected.

Security researchers not involved in the discovery were still studying the advisory at time of writing, but at least one of them said it appeared at first blush to warrant an immediate action.

“This passes my it’s-not-crying-wolf test so far,” said Rodney Thayer, CTO of security research firm Secorix. “If I had some kind of enterprise-class Linux system like a Red Hat Enterprise Linux…I would really go check and see if this looked like it related, and if my vendor was on top of it and did I need to get a kernel patch.”

I wonder if any more major bugs will be disclosed before the end of the year? The less Kernel updates that need to be carried out the better in my books.

Full technical details of the bug can be found here:

Linux NULL pointer dereference due to incorrect proto_ops initializations

Source: The Register


Posted in: Exploits/Vulnerabilities, Linux Hacking

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Stoned Bootkit – Windows XP, 2003, Vista, 7 MBR Rootkit

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What is Stoned Bootkit?

A bootkit is a boot virus that is able to hook and patch Windows to get load into the Windows kernel, and thus getting unrestricted access to the entire computer. It is even able to bypass full volume encryption, because the master boot record (where Stoned is stored) is not encrypted. The master boot record contains the decryption software which asks for a password and decrypts the drive. This is the weak point, the master boot record, which will be used to pwn your whole system. No one’s secure!

For whom is Stoned Bootkit interesting?

  1. Black Hats
  2. Law enforcement agencies
  3. Microsoft

Why is Stoned something new? Because it is the firts bootkit that..

  • attacks Windows XP, Sever 2003, Windows Vista, Windows 7 with one single master boot record
  • attacks TrueCrypt full volume encryption
  • has integrated FAT and NTFS drivers
  • has an integrated structure for plugins and boot applications (for future development)

A bootkit is a rootkit that is able to load from a master boot record and persist in memory all the way through the transition to protected mode and the startup of the OS. It’s a very interesting type of rootkit.” – Robert Hensing about bootkits

You can download Stoned Bootkit here:

Open Source Framework – Stoned Bootkit Framework.zip
Infector file – Infector.exe

Or you can read more here.


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Twitter Being Used As Botnet Command Channel

Don't let your data go over to the Dark Side!


Ah Twitter in the news again, the bad guys sure do keep up with new trends. After being taken offline for a while by a Joejob DDoS attack Twitter is in the news again – this time it’s being used as the command channel for a Botnet.

The normal method for controlling Botnets is via an IRC channel, usually a private keyed channel on some obscure network. A lot of people used to use EFnet due to it’s lack of network services, but nowdays there are so many networks to choose from people can keep out of the limelight.

Sometimes even using a private IRCd setup on a hacked server or via Dynamic DNS on a home server.

For the past couple weeks, Twitter has come under attacks that besieged it with more traffic than it could handle. Now comes evidence that the microblogging website is being used to feed the very types of infected machines that took it out of commission.

That’s the conclusion of Jose Nazario, the manager of security research at Arbor Networks. On Thursday, he stumbled upon a Twitter account that was being used as part of an improvised update server for computers that are part of a botnet.

The account, which Twitter promptly suspended, issued tweets containing a single line of text that looked indecipherable to the naked eye. Using what’s known as a base64 decoder, however, the dispatches pointed to links where infected computers could receive malware updates.

Ok so one such channel was discovered, how many more accounts are there on Twitter being used for nefarious purposes?

Very hard for anyone to track them down, especially if they don’t use standard syntax across all the accounts.

I’m sure Twitter will be thinking up some way to auto-discover these accounts.

Master command channels used to herd large numbers of infected machines have long been one of the weak links in the botnet trade. Not only do they cost money to maintain, but they can provide tell-tale clues that help law enforcement agents to track down the miscreants running the rogue networks. Bot herders have used ICQ, internet relay chat, and other chat mediums to get around this limitation, but this appears to be the first time Twitter is known to have been employed.

Nazario said he’s found at least two other Twitter accounts he suspects were being used in the same fashion, but needs to do additional analysis before he can be sure. The bots using the Twitter account connected using RSS feeds, a technique that allowed them to receive each tweet in real time without the need of an account. It was unclear how many bots connected to the account.

Up to now, the bot designers have done a good job keeping their enterprise under wraps. The original bot software is detected by just 46 percent of the major anti-virus tools, according to this VirusTotal analysis. The updates, which appear to be affiliated with the Buzus trojan, are even stealthier, with only 22 percent of AV engines detecting it.

The example discovered uses base64 encoding, so perhaps they can track down accounts with base64 strings in their feed.

You can read more on the Arbor Networks blog here:

Twitter-based Botnet Command Channel

Source: The Register


Posted in: Malware, Network Hacking

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sslsniff v0.6 Released – SSL MITM Tool

Cybertroopers storming your ship?


This tool was originally written to demonstrate and exploit IE’s vulnerability to a specific “basicConstraints” man-in-the-middle attack. While Microsoft has since fixed the vulnerability that allowed leaf certificates to act as signing certificates, this tool is still occasionally useful for other purposes.

It is designed to MITM all SSL connections on a LAN and dynamically generates certs for the domains that are being accessed on the fly. The new certificates are constructed in a certificate chain that is signed by any certificate that you provide.

New In Version 0.6

Version 0.6 has been significantly updated to additionally support the null-prefix attacks that was demonstrated at BlackHat 09 and Defcon 17. These allow for completely silent MITM attacks against SSL/TLS in the NSS, Microsoft CryptoAPI, and GnuTLS stacks — ultimately allowing for SSL communication in Firefox, Internet Explorer, Chrome, Thunderbird, Outlook, Evolution, Pidgin, AIM, irssi, and every other client that uses the Microsoft CryptoAPI to be intercepted.


sslsniff has also been updated to support the OCSP attacks that was published at Blackhat 09 and Defcon 17, thus making the revocation of null-prefix certificates very difficult. Additionally, sslsniff now supports modes for hijacking auto-updates from Mozilla products, as well as for Firefox/Thunderbird addons. Attackers can specify payloads of their choice, which will be delivered to the targets being man-in-the-middled.

sslsniff is useful for deploying other vulnerabilities as well. This is the tool that the people who pulled the recent MD5 hash collision publicity stunt used to demonstrate MITM attacks with their rogue CA-certificate. Also, anyone who is capable of obtaining a forged certificate by any means can easily deploy it through sslsniff with the targeted mode designed for null-prefix attacks.

You can download sslsniff v0.6 here:

sslsniff-0.6.tar.gz

Or read more here.


Posted in: Forensics, Hacking Tools, Network Hacking

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WordPress 2.8.3 Admin Reset Exploit

Don't let your data go over to the Dark Side!


Ah it’s WordPress again, sometimes I wonder how many holes there are in WordPress. I guess a dedicated attacker could find some serious ones with the complexity of the code base.

It’s suspected some of the recent high profile breaches have come from WordPress exploits.

The latest one to become public is a simple but effective flaw, it doesn’t enable take-over but it does allow a prankster to lock an admin out of their blog by resetting the password.

Developers of the widely used WordPress blogging software have released an update that fixes a vulnerability that let attackers take over accounts by resetting the administrator password.

The bug in version 2.8.3 is trivial to exploit remotely using nothing more than a web browser and a specially manipulated link. Typically, requests to reset a password are handled using a registered email address. Using the special URL, the old password is removed and a new one generated in its place with no confirmation required, according to this alert published on the Full-Disclosure mailing list.

The flaw lurks in some of the PHP code that fails to properly scrutinize user input when the password reset feature is invoked. Exploiting it is as easy is directing a web browser to a link that looks something like:

I actually saw the alert as it was published on Full-Disclosure, obviously anything to do with WordPress catches my attention.

The exploit can be executed by running the following code on a WordPress 2.8.3 blog:

Simple but effective.


According to WordPress documentation here, the bug has been fixed by changing a single line of code so the program checks to make sure the input supplied for the new password isn’t an array. If it is, the user gets an error message and must try again.

That would appear to be the end of it, but security researchers Rafal Los and Mike Bailey wonder aloud here whether it would have made more sense to check instead whether the input is a string.

“Hasty coding?” he asks. “Why take the blacklist vs. whitelist approach?”

The bigger point he and other observers seem to make is that PHP is the coding equivalent of an everyman’s jet pack. It allows him to quickly soar into the sky with a minimal amount of training but doesn’t necessarily provide the means to check for buildings, planes or other hazards that may greet the user once he gets there.

WordPress 2.8.4 has already been released so if you’re running WordPress do update ASAP to ensure you are safe from this bug.

With the core updates now available on auto-update there’s no excuse for not updating (no more download, extract, upload via FTP).

Of course with its history, this doesn’t mean you are safe from any of the other exploits that haven’t been made public.

Source: The Register


Posted in: Exploits/Vulnerabilities, Web Hacking

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Xplico – Network Forensic Analysis Tool

Cybertroopers storming your ship?


The goal of Xplico is extract from an internet traffic capture the applications data contained. For example, from a pcap file Xplico extracts each email (POP, IMAP, and SMTP protocols), all HTTP contents, each VoIP call (SIP), FTP, TFTP, and so on. Xplico isn’t a network protocol analyzer. Xplico is an open source Network Forensic Analysis Tool (NFAT). Xplico is released under the GNU General Public License (see License for more details).

Xplico Features

  • Protocols supported: HTTP, SIP, IMAP, POP, SMTP, TCP, UDP, IPv6, …;
  • Port Independent Protocol Identification (PIPI) for each application protocol;
  • Multithreading;
  • Output data and information in SQLite database or Mysql database and/or files;
  • At each data reassembled by Xplico is associated a XML file that uniquely identifies the flows and the pcap containing the data reassembled;
  • Realtime elaboration (depends on the number of flows, the types of protocols and by the performance of computer -RAM, CPU, HD access time, …-);
  • TCP reassembly with ACK verification for any packet or soft ACK verification;
  • Reverse DNS lookup from DNS packages contained in the inputs files (pcap), not from external DNS server;
  • No size limit on data entry or the number of files entrance (the only limit is HD size);
  • IPv4 and IPv6 support
  • Modularity. Each Xplico component is modular. The input interface, the protocol decoder (Dissector) and the output interface (dispatcer) are all modules
  • The ability to easily create any kind of dispatcer with which to organize the data extracted in the most appropriate and useful to you

You can download Xplico 0.5.2 here:

xplico-0.5.2.tgz

Or read more here.


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